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General Psychology Exam 1 Review

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Ryan notices that a lot of people he sees avoid making eye contact while they walk by him on their cell phones. He develops a tentative explanation that people are too focused on their conversation to be distracted by an outside passerby. Ryan’s observation is an example of a
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hypothesis
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The most accurate definition of psychology is the scientific study of
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the mind and behavior
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An idea that is supported by a large body of evidence is a
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Theory
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_ is the name for Wundt’s approach of asking patients to look inward and describe their feelings in order to understand consciousness
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Introspection
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The focus on how mental activities help a person adapt to his or her environment is known as
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Functionalism
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Functionalism focused on
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how mental activities help a person adapt to his or her environment
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Using recording devices to measure behavior is an example of ________ analysis.
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Empirical
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William James is best known for
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Functionalism
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According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is a way to access the unconscious mind?
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Dream Analysis
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The rational, conscious, and reasonable part of personality is known as the
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Ego
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The unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression is the
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Id
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A person’s conscience and voice of reason and goodness is the
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SuperEgo
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Kurt Koffka is known for saying “the whole is other than the sum of its parts,” this is an example of ______ psychology.
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Gestalt
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The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions and dolphins to perform tricks, this is an example of:
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Behaviorism
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Pavlov trained a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, this is called:
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Conditioning
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Which perspective within psychology emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all people?
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Humanism
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Maslow made a pyramid representing human needs called:
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The Hierarchy of Human Needs
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Our thoughts are just as important as our behavior. This is an example of:
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Cognitive Psychology
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Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.
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The unconscious
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Which school of thought emphasized the use of introspection to categorize and break down sensations into basic elements?
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Structuralism
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Which school of thought emphasized how people process information?
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Cognitive Psychology
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Which school of thought emphasized the unconscious influences on thought and behavior?
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Psychoanalytic Psychology
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Which psychological domain would include a study of memory and intelligence?
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Cognitive Psychology
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Which of the following is NOT a main psychological domain?
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Psychoanalytic Theory
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Which type of psychologist may be involved in analyzing criminal behavior?
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Forensic
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What is the first step of the scientific method?
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Make an Observation
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What is the second step in the scientific method?
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Ask a question
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What is the third step in the scientific method?
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Form a Hypothesis
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What is the fourth step in the scientific method?
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Make a Prediction
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What is the fifth step of the scientific method?
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Conduct an Experiment
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What is the sixth step in the scientific method?
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Analyze the Results
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Which of the following topics are included in the biological domain of psychology?
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Neuroscience
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Which school of thought emphasized the development of a healthy and effectively-functioning person?
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Humanism
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Jade plans to major in business then continue on to study ________ so that she can work as a consultant for businesses interested in improving employee motivation and increasing productivity
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1/O Psychology
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If two different variables are not related at all, they have a correlation coefficient of
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If Y goes up as X goes up, they have a _________ correlation
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positive
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If Y goes down as X goes up, they have a _________ correlation.
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negative
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In order to study relationships between two variables without assuming causality, a researcher must perform what type of study?
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correlational
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Preliminary, non-experimental, research that gathers information about behavior is called ________ research.
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Descriptive
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Which organization reviews research conducted using animal subjects?
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IACUC
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Informed consent means clearly explaining all of the following EXCEPT
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explaining the hypothesis to the participants.
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In order for an experiment to be considered fair
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all data must be considered
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If I want to make a causal statement about a relationship, I need to do __________ research
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Experimental
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In order to study cause and effect, a researcher must perform _________ research.
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Experimental
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If Marco is interested in changes in reasoning and thinking that occur during adolescence, he should specialize in ________ psychology.
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Developmental
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Jenny’s softball team always came close to winning, but seemed to give up during the 6th inning. Her coach scheduled an appointment with the ________ to discuss performance anxiety.
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Sports Psychologist
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Who is a famous psychologist associated with the cognitive revolution?
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Noam Chomsky
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Who was the first psychologist to publish a book on cognitive psychology?
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Ulric Neisser
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________ was a prominent therapist who advocated for client-centered therapy.
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Carl Rogers
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was the first african american to receive a PhD in psychology
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Cecil Sumner
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The famous “doll study” showing that social factors had an impact on how children perceive race was conducted by
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Kenneth Clark
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_________ are features of people in an area that psychologists use to group populations.
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Demographics
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Who came up with Structuralism?
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Wilhelm Wundt
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Gestalt psychology was popularized by
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Max Wertheimer
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When an experiment involved deception, participants are told complete and truthful information about the experiment at its conclusion, this is called
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Debriefing
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The process of informing a research participant about what to expect during an experiment is called
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Informed Consent
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The Stanford Prison experiment is a famous experiment in the area of
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Social Psychology
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What is a consistent pattern of thought and behavior studied by personality psychology?
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A trait
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_______ is the scientific study of development across a lifespan
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Developmental Psychology
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Positive Correlation
Positive Correlation
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Negative Correlation
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No Correlation
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none!