General Psychology Chapters 12 and 13

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1. When a behavior is ______it is often considered abnormal. A. negative and more impulsive than is generally acceptable B. atypical in that it deviates from what is acceptable in a culture C. repetitive D. unique
answer

B
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2. When a behavior interferes with a person’s ability to function effectively in the world, it is considered A. deviant B. dependent C. maladaptive D. repetitive
answer

C
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3. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria that psychologists use to define abnormality? A. Statistically rare B. Maladaptive C. Personally distressful D. Deviant
answer

A
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4. Jason is very depressed and can’t help but think that life holds few rewards. He feels upset and frustrated by the fact that he just can’t “shake the blues.” The __ aspect of abnormal behavior applies to Jason. A. deviant B. maladaptive C. digressive D. distressful
answer

D
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5. The __ approach to disorders primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality. A. psychological B. sociocultural C. biological D. evolutionary
answer

C
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6. Marilyn is depressed a great deal of the time and seeks help from a doctor. She is diagnosed as having a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance. Marilyn is most likely being treated by someone who adheres to the __ model of psychological disorders. A. medical B. behavioral C. psychoanalytic D. cognitive
answer

A
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7. When treating a client with a psychological disorder, a therapist makes the assumption that the person’s difficulties stem primarily from the context in which a person lives. This therapist most likely identifies with the __ approach to psychological disorders. A. biological B. psychological C. sociocultural D. biopsychosocial
answer

C
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8. Which of the following statements about the DSM-IV is false? A. The DSM-IV is a classification of psychological disorders. B. DSM-IV was introduced in 1994 and revised in 2000. C. The number of disorders listed in DSM-IV is significantly lower than the number of disorders listed in the first edition of the DSM. D. The DSM-IV classifies individuals on the basis of five dimensions or axes.
answer

C
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9. Drug companies commonly fund research that focuses on a(n) __ model of psychological disorders. A. cultural B. analytical C. disease D. cognitive
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C
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10. Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) __ . A. mood disorder B. anxiety disorder C. personality disorder D. dissociative disorder
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B
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11. In a(n) ____, a person experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause. A. panic disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. phobic disorder D. obsessive-compulsive disorder
answer

A
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12. Which of the following statements about research on the etiology of panic disorder is false? A. Panic disorder is associated with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and GABA. B. Theories of the origins of panic attack take into account biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. C. Lactate, which plays a role in brain metabolism, has been found to be elevated in individuals with panic disorder. D. American men are twice as likely as American women to be diagnosed with panic disorder.
answer

D
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13. A fear becomes a phobia when __ . A. a doctor diagnoses it as such B. an individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the fear/phobia C. a person can specifically identify what they are afraid of D. a person cannot identify the source of their nervous feelings
answer

B
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14. Which of the following statements about phobias is true? A. Most phobias begin in middle adulthood. B. People who suffer from phobic disorders are not consciously aware of the cause or trigger of their anxiety. C. Most phobias are rational fear reactions. D. Learning theorists consider phobias to be learned fears.
answer

D
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15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as a(n) __ disorder. A. mood B. personality C. anxiety D. dissociative
answer

C
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16. Jillian can’t bear to leave her home without washing all the linens and floors, vacuuming the carpets, and organizing everything in her cupboards. Because she knows that her behavior is extreme, she has tried to go to work without doing all these things, but she is overcome with such overwhelming dread that she never makes it all the way to the office. Jillian probably has __ . A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. panic disorder
answer

A
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17. When Sandra was 18 years old, she was in a serious car accident. Although she made a full recovery from her injuries, she experienced extreme anxiety afterward. Sandra is now very anxious when driving, has nightmares about the accident, and flinches when she goes through intersections. Sandra has symptoms suggestive of __ . A. generalized anxiety disorder B. phobic disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. panic disorder
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C
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18. Depression is classified as a(n) __ disorder. A. anxiety B. mood C. personality D. digressive
answer

B
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19. The leading cause of disability in the United States is __ . A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. panic disorder C. Schizophrenia D. major depressive disorder
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D
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20. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of major depressive disorder? A. Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities B. Significant weight gain or loss C. Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much D. Flashbacks and nightmares
answer

D
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21. Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would try to study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing he tried seemed to work. Joshua has developed __ . A. learned helplessness B. dyslexia C. pervasive refusal syndrome D. delusions
answer

A
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22. Your roommate is acting very strangely. Although she has not slept much in the past few days, she says she is on top of the world. She has cleaned and re-cleaned her closets several times. She also took all her savings and invested it in questionable financial venture. This period of non-stop activity has lasted for well over a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue she exhibited earlier this semester. Your roommate is exhibiting symptoms of __ . A. bipolar disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. panic disorder D. dysthymic disorder
answer

A
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23. Genetic factors are stronger predictors of __ than __ . A. major depressive disorder / bipolar disorder B. bipolar disorder / major depressive disorder C. dysthymic disorder / major depressive disorder D. dysthymic disorder / bipolar disorder
answer

B
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24. Suicide is linked with low levels of which neurotransmitter? A. Dopamine B. GABA C. Serotonin D. Epinephrine
answer

C
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25. Research on gender differences in suicide show that women are __ to attempt suicide and that men are __ to complete suicide. A. more likely / more likely B. less likely / more likely C. less likely / as likely as women D. as likely as men / less likely
answer

A
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26. Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa weigh less than __ of what is considered normal for age and height and refuse to maintain weight at a healthy level. A. 65 percent B. 70 percent C. 85 percent D. 90 percent
answer

C
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27. Francine has been suffering from a chronic sore throat, kidney problems, dehydration, gastrointestinal problems, and dental problems. These complications are commonly experienced by individuals who suffer from A. binge eating disorders B. anorexia nervosa C. bulimia nervosa D. bipolar disorder
answer

C
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28. __ involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity. A. Anxiety disorders B. Mood disorders C. Personality disorders D. Dissociative disorders
answer

D
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29. Which of the following statements about dissociative identity disorder is false? A. Individuals with dissociative identity disorder have two or more distinct personalities or identities. B. Each personality has knowledge of the memories, behaviors, and relationships of the other personalities. C. One personality dominates at a time. D. Personality shifts usually occur under conditions of distress.
answer

B
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30. __ are sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli. __ are false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual’s culture. A. Delusions / Hallucinations B. Hallucinations / Delusions C. Referential thoughts / Catatonic thoughts D. Catatonic thoughts / Referential thoughts
answer

B
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31. The __ of Schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas __ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions. A. positive symptoms / negative symptoms B. negative symptoms / positive symptoms C. physical symptoms / psychological symptoms D. psychological symptoms / physical symptoms
answer

A
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32. Catatonia A. is a state of immobility and unresponsiveness that lasts for long periods of time B. means giving personal meaning to completely random events C. refers to false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual’s culture D. refers to sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuli
answer

A
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33. Ted is a superficially charming person but is indifferent to the pain of others. He has spent his life in and out of prison for violent crimes. Ted would most likely be diagnosed with which type of personality disorder? A. Borderline B. Narcissistic C. Antisocial D. Schizoid
answer

C
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34. All of the following are symptoms of borderline personality disorder EXCEPT __ . A. chronic feelings of emptiness B. paranoia C. hallucinations D. difficulty controlling anger
answer

C
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35. The thinking style called splitting is associated with which of the following disorders? A. Schizophrenia B. Dissociative identity disorder C. Antisocial personality disorder D. Borderline personality disorder
answer

D
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36. Which of the following biomedical interventions for changing behavior is used least often? A. Aversive conditioning B. Psychotherapy C. Psychosurgery D. Drug therapy
answer

C
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37. Xanax, Valium, and Librium are benzodiazepines that are commonly used drug therapies for treating A. mood disorders B. anxiety disorders C. schizophrenia D. dissociative disorders
answer

B
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38. Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs? A. Tricyclics B. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) D. Benzodiazepines
answer

C
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39. Elizabeth visited a psychiatrist who, after interviewing her, recommended either Paxil or Prozac. These drugs are generally used to treat __ . A. social skills deficiencies B. depression and anxiety C. bipolar disorder D. psychosis
answer

B
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40. Lithium is an effective __ drug. A. antipsychotic B. antianxiety C. barbiturate D. mood-stabilizing
answer

D
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41. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat __. A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. major depressive disorder C. schizophrenia D. panic disorder
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C
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42. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for __ . A. dissociative identity disorder B. depression C. schizophrenia D. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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B
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43. Which of the following is a biological intervention that involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue? A. Electroconvulsive therapy B. Psychotherapy C. Psychoanalysis D. Psychosurgery
answer

D
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44. Which of the following forms of treatment would be used only as a last resort to help patients with severely debilitating conditions? A. Drug therapy B. Cognitive therapy C. Psychosurgery D. Psychoanalysis
answer

C
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45. The main goal of psychoanalysis is to __. A. persuade clients to abandon their irrational, misery-inducing beliefs B. provide clients with insight into their unconscious conflicts C. train clients to avoid maladaptive patterns of behavior through modeling of appropriate behaviors D. demonstrate unconditional positive regard toward the client
answer

B
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46. Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would include A. free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client’s resistance to discussing painful memories B. teaching clients to replace their fears systematically with more relaxed responses C. systematic desensitization and token economies D. prescribing strong medication that will reduce the client’s anxiety so that the client can learn to relax and gain insight
answer

A
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47. The release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience is known as __ . A. tardive dyskinesia B. catharsis C. resistance D. transference
answer

B
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48. James dreamed that he went to his neighbor’s house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to have sex with his neighbor’s wife. Making the sandwich was the __ . A. symbolic content of the dream B. manifest content of the dream C. latent content of the dream D. resistant content of the dream
answer

B
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49. In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describe __ . A. the gradual shifting of erogenous desires from the mouth to the genitals B. the phenomenon in which the patient comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble her or his other relationships C. efforts to redirect anxiety-provoking desires into socially acceptable actions D. the repression of painful memories from conscious awareness
answer

B
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50. Bruce is seeing a therapist for his depression but he is always late and has missed several appointments. He talks about sports and the weather to try and avoid facing his problems and he often becomes argumentative with his therapist. According to psychoanalytic theory, Bruce’s behavior is a classic example of __ . A. transference B. resistance C. projection D. catharsis
answer

B
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51. Dr. Patterson tries to create a warm supportive atmosphere to help her clients improve their self- concepts and to encourage insight into problems. Dr. Patterson says little to her depressed client. Instead, she waits for him to express his feelings and for him to decide what he wants to do about his problems. This emphasis on encouraging self-reflection indicates that Dr. Patterson is practicing __ . A. client-centered therapy B. behavior therapy C. psychoanalysis D. cognitive therapy
answer

A
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52. The primary goal of behavior therapy is to __ . A. uncover unconscious conflicts B. gain self-awareness C. reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior D. be sensitive to the cultural and contextual needs of the client
answer

C
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53. Systematic desensitization involves __ . A. pairing a feared stimulus with a state of deep relaxation by being exposed to feared situations in a gradual hierarchical fashion B. exposing an individual to feared stimuli to an excessive degree while not allowing him or her to avoid the stimuli C. gaining systematic insight into the source of your fear D. using a gradual build-up of self-reflective speech
answer

A
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54. Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment for __ . A. schizophrenia and panic disorder B. depression C. smoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol D. generalized anxiety disorder
answer

C
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54. Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment for __ . A. schizophrenia and panic disorder B. depression C. smoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol D. generalized anxiety disorder
answer

B
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56. A psychologist who practices cognitive therapy might try to help a patient who suffers from a major depressive disorder by __ . A. using systematic desensitization to replace depression with relaxation B. trying to get the patient to stop having irrational thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes C. analyzing unconscious conflicts from the patient’s past D. involving the patient in satisfying social activities
answer

B
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57. A therapist challenges her client during a therapy session by saying, “So what if your fiancĂ©e left you and married your roommate instead? Why does that mean that you are not a good person?” The therapist is working from which perspective? A. Integrative therapy B. Psychoanalysis C. Rational-emotive behavior D. Person-centered
answer

C
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58. Which of the following is an important aspect of cognitive-behavior therapy? A. Self-efficacy B. Insight C. Self-awareness D. Cultural
answer

A
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59. Dr. Houltin is a therapist who regularly meets with several clients simultaneously. In this setting, clients share information and provide feedback to each other. Dr. Houltin is practicing __ . A. family therapy B. group therapy C. unethical behavior D. feminist therapy
answer

B
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60. One aspect of family therapy is the idea that a family member’s symptoms are a function of the family relationships. If, for example, a teenage son is the scapegoat of the parents, which family therapy technique would be the most appropriate to use? A. Validation B. Reframing C. Structural change D. Detriangulation
answer

D
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61. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is based on which of the following therapeutic approaches? A. Family therapy B. Self-help group C. Rational-emotive therapy D. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
answer

B
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62. Given that collectivist cultures place more importance on the group than on the individual, some psychologists have suggested that __ is likely to be more effective with people from Asian and Latin cultures. A. psychoanalysis B. humanistic therapy C. family therapy D. a self-help support group
answer

C
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63. Research shows that __ is the most important determinant of therapy outcome. A. the therapist’s credentials B. the cost of the therapist C. the quality of the client’s participation D. the client’s age
answer

C

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