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General Psychology Chapter 3 Biopsychology Essay

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Neuroscience
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Deals with structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue, relationship with behavior and learning
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Nervous System
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The network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
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Central Nervous System
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The complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
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Brain
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Interprets & stores information & sends orders to muscles, glands, and organs.
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Spinal Cord
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Pathway connecting the brain & peripheral nervous system.
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Peripheral Nervous System
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Transmits information to & from the central nervous system.
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Autonomic Nervous System
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Automatically regulates glands, internal organs, & blood vessels, pupil dilation, digestion, and blood pressure.
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Somatic Nervous System
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Carries sensory information & controls movement of the skeletal muscles.
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Parasympathetic Division
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Maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy.
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Sympathetic Division
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Prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress.
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Neuron
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The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system
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Dendrite
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Branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons
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Soma
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Cell body of a neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cells, contains nucleus.
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Axon
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Tube-like structure of fiber attached to the soma that carries the neural message to other cells
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Synapse
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Junction between two nerve cells
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Glial Cells
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Non-Neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons.
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Myelin Sheath
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Fatty substance produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons.
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Nerves
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Bundles of axons coated in myelin.
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Neurilemma
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Membrane through which damaged nerve fibers can repair themselves.
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Neural Impulse
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Inside and outside of the cell is semi-liquid with ions.
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Resting Potential
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The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse.
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Action Potential
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When dendrites are activated. Firing at 1/1000 of a second.
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Strong VS Weak Stimulis
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Either firing or not at all.
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Axon Terminals
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Branches at the end of the axon.
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Synaptic Knob (Terminal button)
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Rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals.
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Synaptic Vesicle
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Saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals
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Neurotransmitter
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Chemical suspended in fluid that when released, has an effect on the next cell.
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Synapse or Synaptic Gap
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Microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell.
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Receptor Sites
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Holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
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Excitatory synapse
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Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire.
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Inhibitory synapse
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Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing
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Agonists
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Chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell.
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Antagonists
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Chemical substances that block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters.
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Acetylcholine
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1st neurotransmitter to be ideatefied. Found at synapse between neurons and muscle cells. Found in the hippocampus (memory forming). Stimulate skeletal muscles to contract, slows contractions in heart muscle. Curare, antagonist leads to paralysis.
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Glutamate
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Nervous System’s major excitatory neurotransmitter. Learning and memory, development of the nervous system.
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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
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Most common neurotransmitter producing inhibitory effect in the brain. Calms anxiety.
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Serotonin
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Found in lower part of the brain. Can have excitatory or inhibitory effect. Associated with sleep, mood (low levels linked with depression), appetite
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Dopamine
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Found in the brain, can have different effects. Low dopamine levels linked with Parkinson’s disease. Too much dopamine linked with Schizophrenia
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Endorphins
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Pain-controlling chemicals in the body. § Has same effect as morphine. Leads to addiction to heroin or opium. Taking drugs, the body neglects to produce endorphin.
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Norepihephrine
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Mainly excitatory. Involved in arousal and mood.
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Reuptake
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Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.
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Enzyme
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complex protein that is manufactured by cells. One enzyme specifically breaks up acetylcholine because muscle activity needs to happen rapidly; reuptake would be too slow
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Reuptake Blocking
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Some drugs may be used to block the reuptake of neurotransmitters i.e. SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
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Spinal Cord
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Long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body & the brain & is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes.
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Reflex ARC
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Afferent (sensory neurons)
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Carry messages from the senses to the spinal cord.
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Efferent (motor neurons)
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Carry messages from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
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Interneurons
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Connect the affevent neurons to the motor neurons. Make up the inside of the spinal cord & the brain.
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Neuroplasticity
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The ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma.
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Stem cells
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Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear, Obtained from human embryos or bone marrow (not as plastic)
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Somatic Nervous System
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Made up of the sensory pathway & motor pathway Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body. Voluntary, Can be moved at will but not limited to that kind of movement.
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Sensory pathway
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Nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons.
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Motor pathway
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Nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles consisting of efferent neurons.
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Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)
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Responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. Adrenal glands stimulated to release stress-related hormones targeting heart, muscles and lungs.
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Parasympathetic (Eat-drink-rest)
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Neurons are located at the top and bottom of the spinal column, on either side of the sympathetic division. Restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. Slows heart & breathing, constricts pupils, reactivates digestion and excretion Hungry after stress. Responsible for day to day functioning of organs and glands. Regular heartbeat, breathing, digestion.
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Deep Lesioning
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insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire
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Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)
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milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message
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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
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magnetic pulses are applied to the cortex using special copper wire coils that are positioned over the head. Repetitive TMS (rTMS). § transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), human brain damage
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Computed Tomography Scans (CT Scans)
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Brain imaging method using computer controlled X-rays of the brain. Can show stroke damage, tumors, injuries and abnormal brain structure.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Scans)
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Brain imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain. 3-D image of the brain.
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Electroencephalogram (EEG):
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Records electric activity of the brain below specific areas of the skull
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Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
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radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of brain activity of the brain; lighter colors indicate more activity
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functional MRI (fMRI)
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a computer makes a sort of “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods
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Medulla
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1st large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain. Responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.
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Pons (“bridge”)
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Larger swelling above the medulla. Connects the tope of the brain to the bottom. Plays part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination and arousal.
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Reticular formation
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Area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond. Responsible for selective attention. Keep people alert and aroused. (Reticular Activating System) Implicated in comas in humans
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Cerebellum
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Part of lower brain located behind the pons. Controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement. Controls voluntary movement which happens in succession. Learned reflexes, skills, and habits are stored here. Spinocerebellar degeneration. (tremor, unsteady walk, slurred speech, dizziness, and muscle weakness)
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Thalamus
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Located in the center of the brain. Relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex & processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area. Damage leads to loss or partial loss of sensations. Olfactory bulbs are not affacted by damage to thalamus 2 projections under the front of the brain that receive information from receptors in the nose located just below.
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Hypothalamus
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Located below thalamus, above pituitary gland. Regulates body temperature. Responsible for motivational behavior i.e. Sleep, sex, hunger, thirst. Controls pituitary gland, ultimate regulation of hormones lies in the hypothalamus. Pituitary gland “Master gland” : controls the functions of other endocrine glands.
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Hippocampus
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Located within each temporal lobe. Responsible for formation of long-term memories and location of objects (parahippocampal gyrus).
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Amygdala
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Near hippocampus. Responsible for fear responses, and memory of fear.
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Cortex
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Wrinkled (corticalization) to allow a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull. 2 Sections, the cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum(allows left and right to communicate). Left hemisphere associate with language.
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Occipital Lobes § Motor cortex ▪ Sends motor commands to muscles of the somatic NS
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Rear bottom of each cerebral hemisphere. Containing visual centers of the brain. Primary visual cortex ▪ Process visual information from the eyes. Visual association cortex Identify & make sense of visual information.
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Parietal Lobes
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Top & back of cerebral hemispheres. Centers for touch, taste and temperature sensations. Somatosensory cortex.
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Temporal lobe
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Behind temples. Responsible for sense of hearing and meaningful speech. Primary auditory cortex Auditory association area. Also processed is sense of taste.
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Frontal Lobes
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Infront and top of brain. Higher mental processes, decision making, production of fluent speech. Control emotions by means of connection to the limbic system.
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Association Areas
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Areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for coordination & interpretation of information as well as higher mental processing. Much of brain’s association cortex is in the frontal lobes.
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Broca’s Area ¡ Wernicke’s Area § Left temporal lobe § Understanding the meaning of words § Wernicke’s aphasia ▪ Unable to understand or produce meaningful language.
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Left frontal lobe. Speech production. Broca’s aphasia. Unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words and speak haltingly
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Wernicke’s Area
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Left temporal lobe. Understanding the meaning of words Wernicke’s aphasia Unable to understand or produce meaningful language.
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Cerebrum
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Upper part of the brain consisting of 2 hemispheres and the structures that connect them. 90% of population, language is confined to left hemisphere.
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Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
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Causes of ADHD have highlighted the likelihood of more than one cause and more than one brain route to ADHD. Current research is looking at a variety of areas including environmental factors such as low-level lead exposure, genetic influences, the role of heredity and familial factors, and personality factors
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Endocrine Glands
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Ductless glands (direct to blood stream). Secrete hormones.
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Pituitary gland
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Master gland Located in brain. Human growth, influences all other hormone-secreting glands. In pregnancy, controls milk production. Salt and water levels in body.
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Pineal gland
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Brain, near back. Melatonin. Regulates slee-wake cycle
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Thyroid gland
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Neck. Thyroxin. Regulates metabolism
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Pancreas
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Control level of blood sugar Insulin and glucagons Diabetes and hypoglcemia
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Gonads
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Sex glands. Sexual behavior and reproduction.
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Adrenal glands
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2, one on each kidney. Cortisol. Released during physical or mental stress. Important in release of glucose in bloodstream. 2 sections Adrenal medulla Releases epinephrine and norepinephrine under stress. Adrenal cortex Corticoids (30 different hormones) Regulate salt intake Initiate & control stress reactions. Provides source of sex hormones (in addition to gonads)
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Pons
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The part of the brain that regulates walking and relaxing.
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Reticular Formation
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Involved in motivation and alertness