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General Psychology Chapter 3 and 4 Quizlet

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Absolute Threshold
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The minimal level it takes to detect a stimulus. Must be able to detect 50% of the the time
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Example of Absolute Threshold?
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World Trade Center Sway
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Subliminal Stimulus
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Stimulus below level of consciousness. The idea that projecting something below your conscious will stimulate it.
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Do Subliminal Stimuli work?
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No
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Difference Threshold (JND)
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The minimal level it takes to feel perceive the difference in power of a stimuli
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Weber’s Law Explained
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The JND follows a constant ratio for any given sense
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Weber’s Law
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Higher absolute threshold = Higher Difference Threshold Lower absolute threshold = Lower Difference Threshold
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Steven’s Power Law
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The perceived magnitude of a stimulus is equal to its physical intensity raised to a constant power.
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How do the eyes work?
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Cones and Rods
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How we see color?
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Trichromatic Theory, Opponent Process Theory
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Trichromatic Theory
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There are three types of cones, Red, Green, and Blue; each cone is more sensitive to one color than another and all other colors form from a mixture of those cones.
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Opponent Process Theory
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There are three pairs of opposing color cones. Red/Green Blue/Yellow and Black/White. When one is active the other is inhibited, you can’t have both at once.
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Visual Cliff Experiment was done by who?
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Gibson and Walk
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Visual Cliff Experiment
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Tested to see whether or not babies were born with (nature) depth perception, or learned it (nurture).
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What was the outcome of the visual cliff experiment?
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Babies at 2 and 6 months both had the ability to sense depth, but it wasn’t enough to definitively say that it’s nature and not nurture.
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Critical Period
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The time period where the development of a certain ability is the most important.
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What happens if you miss the critical period?
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The ability that was missed is either lacking, or non existent as time goes on.
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Example of critical period
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Man in Africa and thinking Gnu were ants.
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Kids who miss the critical period for language?
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Struggle with the subject.
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Top Down Processing
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Conceptually Driven
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Components of Top Down Processing
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Beliefs, Prior Knowledge, and context
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Bottom Up Processing
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Dependent on what sensory receptor is firing in response to the stimuli.
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Components of Bottom Up Processing
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Sensory Organs, Immediate past experiences prime how the stimulus will be interpreted
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Can you determine a subliminal message in music?
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Not if we are not told to listen for the message (top down processing)
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The environmental context surrounding a stimulus will
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alter the brain’s interpretation of that stimulus.
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Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ____________
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Bottom up, top down
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Perceptual set is a good example of?
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Top down
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What is the period in which biological manifestation is important?
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Critical Period
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Learning
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A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
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Associative Learning
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Simple stimulus-response relationships. Image, idea, etc. being linked to a topic.
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Assumptions of Behaviorism
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Focus’ on observable behavior
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Complex Behaviors are built from certain?
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Stimuli-Response relationships
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Universal Laws of Behaviorism
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If i can train a human to do it, I can train a rat to do it
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Classical Conditioning
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The process by which an Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) and Unconditioned Response (UCR) are consistently paired with an Conditioned Stimulus (CS) in order to render the original response, which is now called the Conditioned Response (CR)
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Balloon example
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– balloon popping (UCS) – wincing (UCR) – Balloon being put in baby’s face – Nothing – Balloon being close to face + popping (UCS) – Baby wincing away (UCR) – balloon put in face (CS) – wincing away (CR) Now when the balloon is put in our faces, we wince, expecting it to explode
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Pavlov’s Dogs Example
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-Food (UCS) -salivating (UCR) -Food w/ Bell (UCS) – Salivating -Bell (CS) -Salivating without food (CR)
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Extinction of the Response
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By using the conditioned stimulus and not adding reward (food) the conditioned response will disappear.
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Spontaneous Recovery
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The recovery of a previously extinct habit
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Generalization
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If one stimulus causes a response then a similar stimulus will cause the same response
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Rules for Generalization
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-The original stimulus will always be the strongest -The more similar the stimulus the stronger the response – Will be generalized unless the “replacement” stimulus is far different from the original
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Discrimination
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Can tell the difference (discriminate) between two stimuli. This is the opposite of generalization
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Albert the Baby example
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– Gong Hit (UCS) – Wincing (UCR) -Gong Hit + White Rat -Wincing -White Rat (CS) – wincing (CR)
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Generalization with Albert the Baby example
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Will be wince when introduced to things like white bunny, white hamster, or even a white fuzzy object
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Garcia and Taste Aversion
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Rats + sugar water + radiation = rats won’t like the taste of sugar water anymore….. ONLY WORKED WITH TASTE NOT THE OTHER SENSES
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What did Garcia learn?
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You can’t condition any stimulus to an UCS ie you must be biologically predisposed
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What is biological preparedness?
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Being innately prepared on a biological level to have a CS pair with an UCS
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What is classical conditioning built on?
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Biological Functions
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Operant Conditioning
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Shaping one’s voluntary (not biological) behavior as a result of the response of that behavior
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Thorndike’s Law of Effect
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Behavior is determined by the response
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Reinforcement
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Anything that increases the frequency of a response
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Punishment
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Anything that decreases the frequency of a response
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Shaping Behavior
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Start by taking small steps, and reinforcing after each one, to arrive at a final desired response (ie train a dolphin to jump out of water example)
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What constraints exist in behavior shaping?
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Biological Constraints
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What learning conditions apply to both Classical and Operant Conditioning?
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Generalization, Discrimination, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery
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What are examples of primary reinforcement?
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Food, Sex etc
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What needs do primary reinforcements satisfy?
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Basic Physiological needs
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What are examples of secondary reinforcements?
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Money, clicking noise, etc
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Why do secondary reinforcements exist?
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They are learned
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Negative Reinforcement
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You do something, and I REMOVE a bad thing
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Positive Punishment
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You do something, and I ADD an annoyance
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Positive Reinforcement
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Give you, or ADD, something good
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Negative Punishment
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REMOVE a stimulus
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Continuous Reinforcement
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Reinforce a response every time it occurs
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What is good about Continuous Reinforcement?
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More effective in initially shaping behavior
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Partial Reinforcement
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Reinforce the response every so often
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What is good about Partial Reinforcement?
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It is better at maintaining the behavior over time
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Ratio Schedule
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Reinforcement is given after an amount of the response has occurred.
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Fixed ratio
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Reinforcement occurs at every n’th response.
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Variable Ratio
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Reinforcement occurs after a seemingly more random number of responses have occurred.
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Interval Schedule
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Reinforcement is given for a response that occurs after an amount of time
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Fixed interval
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Reinforcement occurs after a set amount of time
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Variable interval
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Reinforcement that occurs after a seemingly random amount of time has passed since the response was last reinforced.
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Behavioral Modification Therapy
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Applies the principles of classical and operant conditioning to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable behaviors
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Cognitive Learning
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Learning with more focus on cognition (higher mental processes)
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Observational Learning
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Learning through imitation
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Dummy example of Observational Learning
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-Adult hit dummy and got reward = kid hit dummy -Adult hit dummy an got berated = kid wouldn’t hit dummy
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Latent Learning
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Knowledge that only becomes clear when given an incentive (reward/reinforcement) to display it.
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Tolman’s Research
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Rats were put into a maze with no incentive to finish quickly and as such explored the maze and failed many times before successfully exiting. When the mouse was offered a reward for completing the maze, it turns out that the mouse mentally knew the optimal route, and yet didn’t display the knowledge until it had incentive to do so.
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Cognitive Map
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Mental Picture or Map of an area/puzzle/maze that underlies the ability to mentally know different routes that lead to the desired outcome.
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Drive-Reduction Theory
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We are PUSHED into action by unpleasant drive states, such as hunger.
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What is Drive-Reduction Theory good at explaining?
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Biological Needs, basic physiology
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Incentive Theory
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We are PULLED into action by external incentives that do not involve biological drives reduction
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Arousal Theory
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We are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal and will raise, or lower, activity accordingly
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
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Increased arousal will aid performance up to a point, after which further arousal impairs performance.
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Extrinsic Motivation
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Perform a behavior to obtain a reward (i.e positive reinforcement) or to avoid an aversive stimulus (i.e negative reinforcement)
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Intrinsic Motivation
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Perform a behavior for it’s own sake; reinforcement is provided by the activity itself
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The Overjustification Effect
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Behavior is intrinsically motivated at first but, external reinforcement is given, and the person eventually loses intrinsic motivation.