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General Psychology chapter 13 & 14

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Personality
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an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
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Psychodynamic theories
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view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
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Free association
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in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
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Psychoanalysis
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Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
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Unconscious
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according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing f which we are unaware.
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Id
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a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
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Ego
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the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
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Superego
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the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscious) and for future aspirations.
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Psychosexual stages
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the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
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Oedipus complex
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according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother an feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
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Identification
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the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos.
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Fixation
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according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
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Defense mechanisms
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in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
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Projective test
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a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.
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Collective unconsciousness
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Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.
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Humanistic theories
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view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.
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Self-actualization
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according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
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Unconditional positive regard
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according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
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Self-concept
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all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question “Who am I?”
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Trait
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a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
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the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
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Social cognitive perspective
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views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context
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Reciprocal determinism
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the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
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Learned helplessness
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the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
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Self
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in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
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Spotlight effect
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overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
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Self-serving bias
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a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
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Narcissism
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excessive self-love and self-absorption
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Social psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
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Attribution theory
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the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation of the person’s disposition.
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Fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
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Attitude
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feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
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Peripheral route persuasion
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occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
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Central route persuasion
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occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
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Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
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Role
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a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. Role playing affects attitudes.
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Cognitive dissonance theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
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Conformity
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adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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Normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
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Informational social influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.
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Social facilitation
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stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
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Social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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Deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
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Group polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
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Groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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Prejudice
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an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
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Stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
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Discrimination
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unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
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Just-world phenomenon
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the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
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Ingroup
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“Us”—people with whom we share a common identity.
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Outgroup
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“Them”—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
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Ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor our own group
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Scapegoat theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
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Other-race effect
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the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own race bias.
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Aggression
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
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Frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration– the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression.
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Social script
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culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
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Mere exposure effect
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
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Passionate love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the begging of a love relationship.
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Companionate love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
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Equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
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Self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
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Altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
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Bystander effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
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Social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
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Reciprocity norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
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Social responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
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Conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
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Social trap
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a situation in which conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
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Mirror-image perception
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mutual views often held by confliction people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
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Superordinate goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.