General Psychology Chapter 1-6 Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
reactions to sensory stimulation
Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
functionalism
Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to
mary whiton calkins
Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
James
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for emerging discipline of psychology?
biology
The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and
physician
The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian
mental life; observable behavior
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ______, but from the 1920’s into the 1960’s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ______.
behaviorism
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
introspection
Behaviorists dismissed the value of
potential for healthy growth
Humanistic psychologists focused attention n the importance of people’s
mental processes
In the early 1960’s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
thought processes and brain functions
Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between
behavior and mental processes
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of
nature; nurture
Innate ability is to learned skill as _____ is to _____.
john locke
Who suggested that the mind at birth is a blank sheet upon which experience writes?
nature verses nurture
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
natural selection
The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
charles darwin
Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
species variation
Charles Darwin attempted to explain the _____ that he had encountered.
multiple levels of analysis
The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding for social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
a biopsychosocial approach
Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna’s difficulties requires
often complement one another
The various perspectives employed by psychologists
blood chemistry
The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by
neuroscience
Which perspective would help us understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
evolutionary
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors’ genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ____ perspective.
unconscious conflicts
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
psychodynamic
Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband’s anger outbursts against her results from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband’s behavior from a ______ perspective.
behavioral
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
behavorial
Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a ______ perspective.
people encode, process, store, and retrieve information
The cognitive perspective focuses on how
cognitive
Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?
cognitive
Which perspective is most likely to be concerned with identifying the powers and limits of human reasoning?
social-cultural
Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic groups?
independent
In a psychological environment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ____ variable.
dependent
In a psychological environment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ____ variable.
mode
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the
arithmetic average of all the scores
The mean of a distribution of scores is the
range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the
biological psychology
Dr. Robinson conducts research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson’s research best represent?
developmental
Dr. Santaniello conducts research on how children’s moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a ____ psychologist.
personality pscyhology
Dr. Roberts studies how best to rest for individual differences in traits such as anxiety and self-esteem. Which specialty area does her research best represent?
social psychology
Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty does his research best represent?
industrial-organizational psychologists
Which psychologist are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?
industrial-organizational
Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a ___ psychologist.
Counseling psychology
Dr. Vazquez helps people to make career choices by assisting them in identifying their strengths and interests. Dr. Vazquez is most likely a
Providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders
Clinical psychologists specialize in
Clinical
For no apparent reason, Adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work. Adam would benefit from talking to a _____ psychologist.
psychiatrist
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
Rote memory
The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of
Recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers
In answering multiple-choice test items, smart test-takers are best advised to
Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome
The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
An empirical approach
By testing their predications by observing human behavior, psychologists are using
Curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
skepticism
Rhodesia insists that Dr. Philip’s history of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of
Critical thinking
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists’ assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
Critical thinking
Assessing whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates
Develop general principles that help explain behavior
The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to
Culture
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their
Discerning human similarities and differences
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
Similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior
Psychologists study animals because
Explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed
The American Psychological Association and Britis Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to
Can bias their observations and interpretations
Psychologists’ personal values and goals
Predictions
The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable
Testable prediction that gives direction to research
A hypothesis is a
replication
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
a single individual is studied in great depth
The case study is a research method in which
the survey
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
population
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a
the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that
naturalistic observation
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in
correlation coefficient
Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?
correlational research
To determine whether the strength of people’s self esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of
intelligence and academic success
A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
experiments
To find out whether breast-milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children, psychologists used
the experiment
Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?
cause and effects
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between
an experiment
In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. The research is an example of
to that group by chance
Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned
random assignment
To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researcher plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are most intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
experimental
The group exposed to a newly created drug that is being tested in an experiment is called the ____ group
placebo
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called
the experimental treatment is absent
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
standard deviation
Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores?
normal curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a
sample to a population
Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a
large
A sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is
neurotransmitters and depression
A biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between
biopsychosocial systems
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communities, it is most necessary to recognize that people are
motor neurons
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay incoming pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord.
motor neurons
Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called
neurons
Dendrites are branching extensions of
receive incoming signals from other neurons
The function of dendrites is to
an extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
An axon is
myelin sheath
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a
action potential
A brief electric charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
threshold
the minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
an all or none response
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron’s reaction is
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
A synapse is a
neurotransmitters
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Reuptake refers to the
acetylcholine
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as
nuerotransmitters
Endorphins are
peripheral
the two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and ____ nervous systems
the brain and spinal cord
The central nervous system consists of
peripheral nervous system
Sensory neurons are located in the
peripheral
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system
peripheral
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ___ nervous system
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of internal organs is called the
autonomic nervous system
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the
sympathetic nervous system
Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?
stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat
The parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic; parasympathetic
An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
neural networks
The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
spinal cord
The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the
endocrine system
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
endocrine system
The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
pituitary gland
pituitary; endocrine glands
lesion
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a
EEG
fMRI
medulla
brainstem
The reticular formation is located in the
thalamus
thalamus
hippocampus
sexual motivation
hypothalamus
The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
cerebrum
cerebral cortex
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
seeing; hearing
frontal
touch
sensory cortex
plasticity
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres
The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that
epileptic seizures
left hemisphere
more; more
holistic system
In Roger Sperry’s view, the brain creates and controls the mind, which in turn influences the brain. Sperry understands the mind and brain as a

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