GCOR Study EXAM

What main track authorities apply to centralized traffic control (CTC) territory?
Authority to enter CTC limits

What main track authorities apply to manual interlockings?
Verbal authority from the control operator or a controlled signal indicates proceed.

Define absolute signal.
A block or interlocking signal without a number plate, or designated by an “A” marker.

Define automatic block system (ABS).
A series of consecutive blocks governed by block signals, cab signals, or both. The signals are activated by a train or by certain conditions that affect the block use.

Define block.
A length of track:
-between consecutive block signals
-between a block signal and the end of the block system limits, or
-in ATC limits the use of which is governed by cab signals and/or block signals

Define block signal.
A fixed signal at the entrance of a block that governs trains entering and using that block.

Define block system.
A block or series of consecutive blocks within ABS, ACS, CTC, or interlocking limits.

Define centralized traffic control (CTC).
A block system that uses block signal indications to authorize train movements.

Define control point.
The location of absolute signals controlled by a control operator.

Define current of traffic.
The movement of trains in one direction on a main track, as specified by the rules.

Define double track.
Two main tracks where the current of traffic on one track is in a specified direction and in the opposite direction on the other.

Define general track bulletin.
A notice containing track bulletin restrictions and other conditions affecting train movement.

Define interlocking.
Signal appliances that are interconnected so that each of their movements follows the other in proper sequence. May be operated manually or automatically.

Define main track.
A track extending through yards and between stations that must not be occupied without authority or protection.

Define multiple main tracks.
Two or more main tracks that are used according to the timetable.

Define proceed indication.
Any block signal that allows a train to proceed without stopping.

Define track warrant control (TWC).
A method to authorize train movements or protect men or machines on a main track within specified limits in a territory designated by the timetable.

Define trackside warning detector.
A device that indicates conditions such as overheated journals, dragging equipment, excess dimensions, shifted loads, high water, or slides.

Define yard.
A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing cars, and other purposes.

Define yard limits
A portion of main track designated by yard limit signs and timetable special instructions or a track bulletin.

What is the most important element in performing job duties?
Safety.

Who can issue or cancel a general order?
The designated manager.

What information is contained in general orders?
The information and instructions related to rules or operating practices.

How are general orders used?
They replace any rule, special instruction, or regulation that conflicts with them.

What is rule 1.3.3?
Inspection of freight cars.

What must cars be checked for during a safety inspection?
Leaning, sagging, improper truck position, object hanging or dragging, objects extending from the side, insecurely attached doors, broken or missing safety appliances, contents leaking, insecure coupling devices, overheard journals or wheels, broken or cracked wheels, brakes that fail to release, or any other apparent hazard that could cause an accident.

Who is responsible for the safety and protection of the train?
The conductor and engineer.

What must the conductor remind the engineer of?
Limits of authority, track warrants, track bulletins, and radio speed restrictions.

When must the conductor inform an engineer of an upcoming restriction along their route?
After the train passes the last station before, but at least two miles from the restriction.

True or false: Crew members can use binoculars to determine the position, aspect, or indication displayed by a fixed signal.
False

When mobile and transmitting or acknowledging a radio communication, what identification is required?
Name or initials of railroad and train number, engine number, or words that identify the precise mobile unit.

When may fixed and mobile units use short identification while communicating by radio?
After making positive identification for switching, classification, and similar operations within a yard.

What are examples of mandatory directives?
Track warrants, track bulletins, DTC authority, track and time, track permits, and radio speed restrictions.

True or false: A mandatory directive restricts a train’s movement will not be issued near a point where the restriction applies until the engineer or conductor confirms that the train can comply with the restriction.
True.

When can you indicate “void” on a mandatory directive form?
When employee reports clear of authority limits or mandatory directive is made void.

How long must crew retain mandatory directives, including those that have been voided?
For continuous tour of duty, or as instructed by train dispatcher.

Before a mandatory directive is acted upon, what must occur?
The conductor and engineer must each have a written copy of the mandatory directive, and each crew member must read and understand it.

If the person who is giving the signal to shove a train disappears, or the light being used disappears, what must employees do?
Stop movement, unless the employee on the leading car controls the air brakes.

True or false: Any object waived violently by any person on or near the track is a signal to stop.
True.

When radio communication is used for shoving movement, what information must be specified to the engineer?
The direction and distance, and distance must be specified when distance is more than four cars.

When using radio communication to make a shove, when must movement be stopped unless additional instructions are received by the engineer?
Half the distance specified.

What aspect is used to indicate a temporary speed restriction?
A yellow flag.

Yellow-red flags are used to indicate what?
That a train may be required to stop.

When flags are not displayed to indicate temporary speed restrictions, where will information on such restrictions be found?
In the track bulletin, track warrant, or general order.

What documents may restrict or stop trains because of track conditions, structures, or men or equipment?
Track bulletins, track warrants, or general orders.

To indicate a restricted area, where must yellow flags be displayed?
Two miles ahead of the restricted area.

What must occur once the train reaches a restricted area indicated by a yellow flag?
Train can proceed at the speed specified by the track warrant, track bulletin, general orders, or radio speed restriction.

When operating within a restricted area, as indicated by a yellow flag, when can the train resume train speed?
When the rear of the train clears the restricted area.

When a yellow flag is displayed, but the restriction is not specified by a track warrant, track bulletin, or general orders, what must the crew do?
Once the train is two miles beyond the yellow flag, crew may proceed at a speed not exceeding 10 MPH. Crew can only resume speed after the rear of the train has passed a green flag, or traveled four miles beyond the yellow flag and the dispatcher has verified that no bulletin or warrant is in effect at that location.

Describe the CLEAR aspect.
Solid green or solid green over solid red.

Describe the APPROACH LIMITED aspect.
Solid yellow over flashing green.

Describe the ADVANCE APPROACH aspect.
Solid yellow over solid green or solid yellow over solid green over solid red.

Describe the APPROACH MEDIUM aspect.
Flashing yellow or flashing yellow over solid red.

Describe the APPROACH RESTRICTING aspect.
Solid yellow over lunar or solid yellow over lunar over solid red.

Describe the APPROACH aspect.
Solid yellow or solid yellow over solid red.

Describe the DIVERGING CLEAR aspect.
Solid red over solid green or solid red over solid green over solid red.

Describe the DIVERGING APPROACH DIVERGING aspect.
Solid red over solid yellow over solid yellow.

Describe the DIVERGING APPROACH MEDIUM aspect.
Solid red over flashing yellow or solid red over flashing yellow over solid red.

Describe the DIVERGING APPROACH aspect.
Solid red over solid yellow or solid red over solid yellow over solid red.

Describe the RESTRICTING aspect.
Flashing red or solid red over flashing red.

Describe the STOP AND PROCEED aspect.
Solid red (with a number plate) or solid red over solid red (with a number plate).

Describe the STOP aspect.
Solid red (without a number plate) or solid red over solid red (without a number plate).

When will a Maintenance of Way employee display yellow-red flags?
One hour before the track bulletin Form B takes effect until one hour after it expires.

True or false: The display of yellow-red flags extends the authorized working time beyond the times listed on the track bulletin form B.
False.

When a yellow-red flag is displayed and the restriction is not specified by a track bulletin, track warrant, or general order, what must crew members do?
Be prepared to stop short of a red flag two miles beyond the yellow-red flag.

If no red flag is displayed following a yellow-red flag, what must the crew members do?
Move at restricted speed. Increase speed only after a crew member has received instructions for the employee in charge of the restriction, or the leading wheels of movement are four miles beyond the yellow-red flag, and the train dispatcher has verified that no track bulletin or track warrant protecting men or equipment is in effect at that location.

What must trains do when a red flag or red light is displayed?
Stop, short of the red flag or red light an not proceed unless the employee in charge gives instructions, including the milepost location of the red flag or red light.

True or false: In red flag restricted areas, if instructions to proceed are provided by the employee in charge before the train stops, the train may pass the red flag or red light without stopping.
True.

What must a train do when it approaches an unattended fusee burning on or near its track?
The train must stop consistent with good train handling. After stopping, the train must proceed at restricted speed for one mile beyond the fusee.

When should the engine bell be rung?
Before moving, except when making momentary stop and start switching movements, as a warning signal any time it is necessary, when approaching men or equipment on or near the track, when whistle signal (7) is required, and when approaching public crossing at grade with the engine in front.

When may the whistle be used?
At any time as a warning regardless of any whistle prohibitions.

Other forms of communications may be used in place of whistle signals, except under which signals?
When persons or livestock are on the track at other than road crossing at grade (1), when approaching public crossings at grade with the engine in front (7), and when approaching men or equipment on or near the track (8).

What is the indication of a CLEAR aspect?
Proceed.

What is the indication of an APPROACH LIMITED aspect?
Proceed prepared to pass next signal not exceeding 60 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the indication of an APPROACH LIMITED aspect?
Proceed prepared to pass next signal not exceeding 50 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the indication of an APPROACH MEDIUM aspect?
Proceed prepared to pass next signal not exceeding 40 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the indication of an APPROACH RESTRICTING aspect?
Proceed prepared to pass next signal at restricted speed.

What is the indication of an APPROACH aspect?
Proceed prepared to stop at the next signal. Trains exceeding 30 MPH immediately reduce to that speed.

What is the indication of a DIVERGING CLEAR aspect?
Proceed prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed through turnout.

What is the indication of a DIVERGING APPROACH DIVERGING aspect?
Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout prepared to advance on diverging route at the next signal not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout.

What is the indication of a DIVERGING APPROACH MEDIUM aspect?
Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout prepared to pass next signal not exceeding 35 MPH.

What is the indication of a DIVERGING APPROACH aspect?
Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout prepared to stop at next signal. If exceeding 30 MPH, immediately reduce to that speed.

What is the indication of a RESTRICTING aspect?
Proceed at restricted speed.

What is the indication of a STOP AND PROCEED aspect?
Stop, then proceed at restricted speed.

What is the indication of a STOP aspect?
Stop.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Yellow over flashing green?
APPROACH LIMITED — Proceed prepared to pass the next signal not exceeding 60 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Yellow over green or yellow over green over red?
ADVANCE APPROACH — Proceed prepared to pass the next signal not exceeding 50 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Flashing yellow or flashing yellow over red?
APPROACH MEDIUM — Proceed prepared to pass the next signal not exceeding 40 MPH and be prepared to enter diverging route at prescribed speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Yellow over lunar?
APPROACH RESTRICTING — Proceed prepared to pass the next signal at restricted speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Yellow of yellow over red?
APPROACH — Proceed prepared to stop at the next signal, trains exceeding 30 MPH immediately reduce to that speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red over green?
DIVERGING CLEAR — Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red over yellow over yellow?
DIVERGING APPROACH DIVERGING — Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout prepared to advance on diverging route at the next signal not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red over flashing yellow or red over flashing yellow over red?
DIVERGING APPROACH MEDIUM — Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout prepared to pass next signal not exceeding 35 MPH.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red over yellow or red over red over yellow?
DIVERGING APPROACH — Proceed on diverging route not exceeding prescribed speed through turnout; approach next signal preparing to stop, if exceeding 30 MPH, immediately reduce to that speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Flashing red or red with a “G” and a marker plate?
RESTRICTING — Proceed at restricted speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red with a number plate?
STOP AND PROCEED — Stop and proceed at restricted speed.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Red or red over red?
STOP — Stop.

What is the name and indication of the following signal aspect: Green.
CLEAR — Proceed.

Describe a whistle sound (1) and its indication.
Sound: Succession of short sounds.
Indication: Use when persons or livestock are on the track at other than road crossings at grade. In addition, use to warn railroad employees when an emergency exists, such as derailment. When crews on other trains hear this signal, they must stop until it is safe to proceed.

Describe a whistle sound (2) and its indication.
Sound: –
Indication: When stopped: air brakes are applied, pressure equalized.

Describe a whistle sound (3) and its indication.
Sound: – –
Indication: Release brakes. Proceed.

Describe a whistle sound (4) and its indication.
Sound: o o
Indication: Acknowledgment of any signal not otherwise provided for.

Describe a whistle sound (5) and its indication.
Sound: o o o
Indication: When stopped: back up. Acknowledgment of hand signal to back up.

Describe the whistle sound (6) and its indication.
Sound: o o o o
Indication: Request for signal to be given or repeated if not understood.

Describe the whistle sound (7) and its indication.
Sound: – – o –
Indication: When approaching public crossings at grade with the engine in front, sound signal as follows:
a. At speeds in excess of 45 MPH, start signal at or about the crossing sign by not more than 1/4 mile before the crossing.
b. At speeds of 45 MPH or less, start signal at least 15 seconds, but not more than 20 seconds, before entering the crossing.
c. If no crossing sign, start signal at least 15 seconds, bu not more than 20 seconds before entering crossing but not more than 1/4 mile before crossing.
d. If movement starts less than 1/4 mile from a crossing, signal may be sounded less than 15 seconds before the crossing when it is clearly seen traffic is not approaching the crossing, traffic is not stopped at the crossing, or when crossing gates are fully lowered.

Describe the whistle sound (8) and its indication.
Sound: – o
Indication: Approaching men or equipment on or near the track, regardless of any whistle prohibitions. After this initial warning, sound whistle signal (4) intermittently until the head end of train has passed the men or equipment.

What should be done if the whistle fails and no other unit can be used as the lead unit?
Continue movement with the bell ringing continuously. Stop the train before each public crossing, so a crew member on the ground can provide warning until the crossing is occupied, unless:
-Crossing gates are in fully lowered position.
-No traffic is approaching or stopped at the crossing.

When crossing at a public crossing at grade, at what point must the headlight be on bright?
At the crossing sign. If no sign, or if movement begins between sign and crossing, the headlight must be on bright soon enough before the crossing to provide warning.

What are the six situations which allow the headlight to be dimmed?
1. At stations and yards where switching is being done.
2. When stopped close behind a train.
3. When stopped on the main track waiting for an approaching train. However, when stopped in block system limits, turn the headlight off at the radio request of the crew of an approaching train, until the head end of the train passes.
4. When approaching and passing the head end of a train at night.
5. At other times to permit passing of hand signals or when the safety of employees requires.
6. When left unattended on a main track in non-signaled territory.

When can you turn off the headlight?
When the train is stopped clear of the main track or when the train is left unattended on the main track in block system limits.

What must be displayed to indicate the rear of the train?
A marker.

How will trains be identified?
By the initials and engine number, adding the direction when required.

When an engine consists of more than one unit, or when two or more engines are coupled, which unit’s number will be illuminated?
The first unit in the consist will be illuminated as the identifying number.

Under what exceptions are numbers other than the initials and engine number used to identify the train?
-On track bulletins that advise about excessive dimension equipment, trains may be identified by train symbol.
-On track bulletins and on track warrants that do not convey movement authority, passenger trains may be identified by the train symbol.

What does a blue signal signify?
That workmen are on, under, or between rolling equipment.

On a main track, how is blue signal protection provided?
A blue signal must be displayed at each end of the rolling equipment.

In addition to providing protection on the track, where else must blue signal protection be posted?
Attached to the controlling engine and be visible to the engineer.

When can the engine under blue light protection be moved?
When directed by the individuals who placed the blue signal protection.

True or false: An engine must not enter a designated engine servicing area until the blue signal protection is removed from the entrance.
True.

When may an engine protected by blue signals be moved?
When an authorized employee operates the engine under the direction of the employee in charge of workmen, the blue signal has been removed from the controlling engine to be repositioned, and workmen have been warned of the movement.

When a signal is improperly displayed, or a signal, flag, or sign is absent from the place it is usually shown, how should the signal be regarded? What else should be done?
As displaying the most restrictive indication it can give. Promptly report improperly displayed signals or absent fixed signals.

What must a crew member do before initiating movement?
Receive a track warrant or general track bulletin, or determine from the train dispatcher or yardmaster if any track bulletins are needed.

What are the different types of main track authorization?
Rule 6.13 yard limits
Rule 6.14 restricted limits
Rule 6.15 block register territory
Rule 9.14 movement with the current of traffic
Rule 9.15 track permits
Rule 10.1 authority to enter CTC limits
Rule 14.1 authority to enter TWC limits
Rule 14.6 movement against the current of traffic
Rule 15.3 authorizing movement against the current of traffic
Rule 15.4 protection when tracks removed from service
Rule 16.1 authority to enter DTC limits
At manual interlockings, verbal authority from the control operator or a controlled signal that indicates proceed.
Special instructions or general order.

When a train receives track and time, track warrant or track permit authority join with another employee, when can train occupy the overlapping limits?
After permission is received to enter the limits from the employees listed on the authority.

How must reverse movements on any main track, controlled siding, or any track where a block system is in effect be made?
At restricted speed an only within the limits a train has authority to occupy the track.

What must be done before making reverse movements?
Obtain permission from the train dispatcher, unless the movement is within the same signaled block.

When a train is advised that working limits have been established behind their train, what must be done in order to make reverse movements?
Obtain permission from the employee in charge, including within the same block.

When cars or engines are shoved on a main track or controlled siding in the direction authorized, movement must not exceed what speed?
20 MPH for freight trains.

When cars or engines are shoved, crew member must be in position and provide visual protection unless relieved by what?
-Local instructions for tracks equipped with shove lights/cameras.
-Special instructions specific to tracks involved.
-Rule 6.6 (picking up crew member)

What are the minimum radio communication requirements that should be used during shoving movements?
Direction of shove, in relationship to the front of the controlling locomotive. Distance of shove if over four car lengths 200 feet.

A train may back up on any main track or on any track where CTC is in effect to pick up a crew member under what conditions?
1. The train dispatcher gives permission to make the movement.
2. Movement is limited to the train’s authority.
3. Movement does not enter or foul a private or public crossing except as provided by rule 6.32.1.
4. Movement will not be made into or within yard limits, restricted limits, interlocking limits, drawbridges, railroad crossings at grade, or track bulletin Form B limits.
5. Movement does no exceed the train’s lengths.

What must a train do when required to take siding?
Stop clear of the switch, unless the switch is properly lined to leave the main track.

What must a train standing on the main track to meet an opposing train do?
If possible, line the switch for for the opposing train to leave the main track. However, within ABS, do not line the switch until the opposing train has entered the block in advance.

How must movements entering or moving within yard limits must be made?
At restricted speed, unless under a block signal indication that is more favorable than Approach.

Within yard limits, trains are authorized to use the main track not protecting against other trains, only after what?
Obtaining a track warrant, listing all track bulletins that affect their movement.

When do yard limits remain in effect?
Continuously unless otherwise specified by special instructions or track bulletin.

True or false: Movement against the current of traffic can be made within yard limits without authorization.
False.

When yard limits fall within CTC territory, how is movement authorized on the main track?
By the control operator.

How are restricted limits designated?
By signs and in the special instructions.

How must movements be made within restricted limits?
At restricted speed.

True or false: Movements within restricted limits can be made against the current of traffic with authorization or protection by track warrant, track bulletin, yardmaster, or other authorized employee.
True.

When is flag protection not required against following trains on the same track?
If train is within ABS limits and the rear of the train is protected by a least two block signals or one block signal and one distant signal. If the rear of the train is within BRT, CTC, DTC, TWC or interlocking limits. Or if general or special instructions specify that flag protection is not required.

What procedure must be followed when leaving a portion of a train temporarily on the main track?
Set a sufficient number of hand brakes to keep the detached portion from moving. Provide protection against movements that may enter the main track between the detached portion and the returning from portion, unless dispatcher verbally relieves the protection, or the return movement is otherwise authorized. Make return movement at restricted speed.

When a defect or condition that might cause an accident is discovered, what must be done?
The crew member must immediately notify the train dispatcher and provide protection if necessary.

What must occur before beginning work and when work or job conditions change?
A job briefing.

What is three point contact? When must it be used?
One hand and two feet, or one foot and two hands. It must be used when getting on or off vehicles, equipment, or machinery.

True or false: In an emergency, running is permitted in the performance of duty.
True.

When should you expect the movement of trains, engines, cars or other equipment?
At any time, in any direction, and on any track.

What must crew members do before going between or working on the end of rail equipment?
Wait for movement to stop and slack to adjust, ensure that all crew members have a clear understanding of the work to be performed.

What is the distance required when going between uncoupled locomotives or cars?
50 feet.

When engines may be working on both ends of a track, what must be done before working between uncoupled equipment?
Red zone must be setup. Notify all members of the crew by radio that the crew member will be going between or working on the end of the rail equipment.

What is the radio response required when a crew member says, “RED ZONE”?
“Set and centered.”

What should be done when equipment will be ridden?
Notify the engineer. Proceed only after the engineer has acknowledged that you are going to ride. Complete any couplings from the ground after the movement is stopped.

True or false: If track condition cannot clearly be observed because of debris, it is still OK to ride moving equipment as long as the engineer is notified.
False.

Before a crew member installs or removes a marker, how should protection be provided?
Determine by communicating with the employee at the controls of the engine that the affected equipment will not be moved. Assure at least 50 feet of separation exists between the point of installation or removal and the nearest other standing equipment.

What is required when crossing through a standing train or cut of cars?
Cross only through cars equipped with crossover platforms. Be prepared for sudden movement and maintain a firm grip.

What is required when crossing through standing coupled cars?
Do not step on the couple or uncoupling lever. Do not place hands, feet, or other parts of the body on the sliding sill or between the couple horn and end sill of the car.

When is it permissible to get on or off moving equipment?
In an emergency to avoid injury.

Explain how to get off standing equipment.
Face the equipment. Before getting off, determine that no obstructions or debris are where your feet will land.

Explain how to load or unload luggage, when getting on or off equipment.
Wait for a co-worker to safely board and get safely on the deck or platform. Secure the item to be loaded against shifting or separating. Get a firm footing and use proper lifting techniques to pass the item to your coworker.

Do not operate hand brakes on moving cars. What are the two exceptions to this rule?
In an emergency or if making gravity switch moves.

What should you do before attempting to operate a switch?
Stop the train at least 50 feet away from the switch stand to be lined. Look in both directions and watch for moving equipment on adjacent tracks. Visually inspect the switch to make sure it is not damaged, locked or spiked. Verify that the switch points are not fouled by debris.

How should you remove debris from a fouled switch point?
Use a stick to remove foreign material. Don’t use hands or feet.

What should you do if you come across a defective switch?
Remove from service immediately. Identify the switches exact location and report to the dispatcher. Attach a “bad order” tag to the switch. Spike the switch. Do not use until repaired.

Who can perform an inspection (rule 1.33) and air brake test?
A qualified person or qualified mechanical inspector.

What percentage of car air brakes must be operative before leaving the initial terminal?
100 percent.

What percentage of cars must maintain functioning air brakes en route?
95 percent.

What should be done with cars discovered to have air brakes that fail en route?
The car should be cut out.

How many consecutive cars can be cut out?
Two.

What is the standard brake pipe pressure for yard or freight services?
90 PSI.

What is the standard brake pipe pressure for trains consisting entirely of business car or passenger equipment?
105 PSI

What can be used to determine the air brake system to be charged at the rear of the train?
An accurate gauge, ETD or HTD locomotive consist.

How do you conduct a brake pipe leakage test using the Brake Pipe Leakage method? Nine steps.
1. Charge the brake system to within 15 PSI of the regulating valve setting as indicated by a gauge or device at the rear of the train.
2. Wait for the signal to apply the brakes.
3. When you receive the signal, reduce brake pipe pressure by 20 PSI.
4. Allow the brake pipe exhaust to stop.
5. Wait 1 minute.
6. Cut out the automatic brake valve.
7. Wait an additional 1 minute for the brake pipe pressure to equalize.
8. Time the brake pipe leakage for 1 minute. If the leakage does not exceed 5 PSI, the test it complete. If the leakage exceeds 5 PSI, train must be inspected for leakage and re-tested.
9. When you receive the signal to release the brakes, move the automatic brake valve to RELEASE position and cut the automatic brake valve in.

Where must a Class 1 air brake test be conducted?
Where the train is originally assembled.

When must a Class 1 air brake test be conducted?
At the initial terminal. When the train consist is changed, other than adding and/or removing a car or solid block of cars, or by removing defective cars. When the train has traveled 3000 miles since its last Class 1 air brake test. Or where an interchange train is received and its consist is changed.

Before or during an Initial Terminal and Road Air Brake Test, what should be inspected?
That the angle cocks are properly positions. That the air hoses are in condition for service and properly coupled. Inspect the system for leakage. Inspect retaining valves to verify that they are in EXHAUST.

How do you conduct an Initial Terminal and Road Air Brake Test (Class 1)? Five steps.
1. Charge the air brake system to within 15 PSI of the locomotive regulating valve setting as indicated by a gauge or device at the rear of the train.
2. When using the preferred Air Flow Method to perform a leakage test, conduct the test as outlined in ABTH 100.9 B. If unable to perform an AFM leakage test due to equipment malfunction or availability, utilize ABTH 100.9 C, Brake Pipe Leakage Method, following step 3.
3. When proper notification is received to apply the brakes from employee conducting the test, make a 20 lb. brake pipe reduction.
4. Inspect the entire train or cars added not pre-tested to determine that:
-Brakes are applied and remain applied on each car and piston travel meets requirements of ABTH 100.18 (Piston Travel) until notification is received to release.
-Brake rigging does not bind or foul.
-All parts of the brake equipment are properly secured.
5. When the test and inspection of the air brake application is complete and the proper notification has been received to release the brakes.

During a Class 1 air brake test, at what speed can a roll-by inspection be done to verify release of the brakes?
Not exceeding 10 MPH.

What can be used to determine application and release of the air brakes on a train that has been previously tested?
An ETD pressure drop and rise of 5 PSI.

When may a Transfer Train Movements test be used to test the air brake system on a train?
When the train an yard movement will not exceed 20 miles in one direction.

How do you perform a Transfer Train Movements air brake test? Four steps.
1. Couple brake pipe hoses between all cars.
2. Charge the brake system to at least 60 PSI as indicated by a gauge or device at the rear of the train.
3. Make a 15 PSI brake pipe reduction.
4. Verify that the brakes apply and remain applied on each car until release signal is given.

During a Transfer Train Movements air brake test, how many times can a car be retested? During that retest, how long must the brakes remain applied?
Once. Three minutes.

When must an Application and Release Test (Class 3) be conducted?
When any change is made to a locomotive consist. When a caboose is changed. After picking up a block of previously tested cars. When helper locomotives are added anywhere in the train or removed from other than the rear end of the train. Or when one of more consecutive cars are set out of the train.

What is the procedure for conducting an Application and Release air brake test (Class 3)? Two steps.
1. Charge the brake system to within 15 PSI of the regulating valve setting as indicated by a gauge or device at the rear of the train.
2. Make a 20 PSI brake pipe reduction with the automatic brake valve. Verify that brake on the rear car apply and release.

When is a locomotive air brake test required?
When making up a locomotive consist, adding locomotives to the consist, removing locomotives from a consist other than when the rear locomotive is removed, and when locomotives are rearranged in the consist.

What is the locomotive air brake test procedure? Ten steps.
1. With the independent and automatic brake valve handles in RELEASE position, apply the independent brake.
2. After observing brakes apply on each locomotive, release the independent brakes.
3. When brakes are release on all locomotives, make a 10 PSI brake pipe reduction using the automatic brake valve.
4. After brakes apply on all locomotives, actuate and observe independent brakes release on all locomotives.
5. Reduce brake pipe pressure an additional 10 PSI with the automatic brake valve and determine all locomotive brakes reapply.
6. Cut out the automatic brake valve.
7. Observe gauges to verify that equalizing reservoir indicates no leakage and that brake pipe leakage does not exceed 5 PSI per minute.
8. Move automatic brake valve handle to RELEASE position and cut the brake valve in.
9. Determine that all brakes release.
10. Fully apply independent brakes upon successful completion of this test.

What is the standard air pressure of the main reservoir on a freight locomotive?
120 to 140 PSI.

What is the standard brake pipe pressure for yard or freight service?
90 PSI.

To the extent possible, what locomotive safety devices should you ensure are operational at all times?
Alerters, automatic cab signals, automatic train stop equipment, automatic train control equipment, event recorder equipment, and locomotive camera system.

How do you determine which hand brakes should be applied when setting out cars on grade?
With slack bunched, apply the hand brakes on the low end of the cut cars. With slack stretched, apply the hand brakes on the high end of the cut of cars.

What variables should be considered when determining the number of hand brakes to be applied on a cut of cars?
Grade and adhesion, number of loaded and empty cars, and weather conditions.

How do you verify that a sufficient number of hand brakes have been applied to prevent movement?
Release all air brakes.

True or false: When any part of a train is left standing, you should depend on the air brake system to secure the cars.
False.

What is the procedure for detaching locomotives or locomotives and cars? Six steps.
1. Secure equipment against undesired movement.
2. Release all air brakes to ensure hand brakes will prevent movement.
3. Make a 20-PSI brake pipe reduction.
4. Close angle cock on rear locomotive or last car to be detached from portion left standing. Leave angle cock open on portion left standing.
5. Allow brakes on any standing portion to apply in emergency.
6. Do not bottle air or maintain air pressure in the brake pipe when locomotives are detached or yard air is uncoupled.

What should you check for before moving cars or locomotives to prevent wheel damage?
That all hand brakes are fully released.

When releasing hand brakes, how many cars past the last applied hand brake should be checked to ensure no other hand brakes are applied?
Three additional cars.

If a hand brake is difficult to release, what can be done to make the release easier?
Charge the air brake system and make a full service application of the car or locomotive before attempting to release the hand brake again.

What should be done if brakes are discovered to stick?
Stop the train as soon as possible. Determine why the brakes are sticking. Correct the problem. If necessary, cut out the control valve or set out the car.

What are reasons that brakes may stick?
Overcharged air brake system. Hand brakes applied. Retaining valve not in EXHAUST. Leak in the air brake system. Releasing a brake pipe reduction with brake pipe air still exhausting. An insufficient brake pipe reduction to ensure proper release.

What is the procedure to cut out a control valve?
Close the branch pipe cutout cock. Drain the air reservoirs completely by operating the brake cylinder release valve.

If necessary to cutout a third consecutive car, what must be done?
Separate it from the other two cars by at least one car with operative brakes.

True or false: The rear car of a train must have operative air brakes.
True.

When a rear car’s brakes become inoperative en route, what should be done? Five steps.
1. Before moving the train, test the hand brake on the disabled car.
2. If the hand brake is inoperative, do not move the car until it is repaired and can be moved safely.
3. Chain, strap or cable the disabled rear car to the rear of the train.
4. Move the car directly to the first auxiliary track and switch it ahead of at least one car with operative brakes, or set it out.
5. If one air brake device/control valve is cut out on a car with multiple control valves, consider the brakes on that car operative.

Angle cocks must never be left partially closed or partially open.
True.

What should be done before coupling air brake hoses to charge the brake pipe?
1. Make a 20-PSI brake pipe reduction. If on grade, in order to prevent an undesired release of the cars being couple to, make a 40-PSI brake pipe reduction.
2. Signal that the brake valve exhaust has stopped by sounding whistle signal (2) or using the radio.
3. Couple air hoses and open angle cocks slowly to prevent an emergency brake application.

When adjusting air hose height, how far from the rail should the glad hand hang?
Four inches.

How many people are needed to arm an ETD?
Two.

How do you arm an ETD?
1. Press the TEST button on the ETD, which will display the ARM NOW message on the message display window of the HTD.
2. Immediately press the COMMUNICATIONS TEST/ARM button on the HTD, which will display the ARMD message on the message display window of the HTD and light the EMERG ENABLED status LED at the same time. If NOT ARMD appears on the HTD message display, the system did not accept the arming sequence repeat steps above.

How do you test an ETD?
1. Close the angle cock between the train and ETD.
2. Initiate an ETD emergency from the lead locomotive HTD. The brake pipe pressure on the ETD must reduce to 0 PSI.
3. Open the angle cock between the ETD and train and determine that brake pipe pressure is restored before proceeding.

When an ETD is properly armed, how is an emergency brake application initiated at the rear of the train?
1. Lift the red cover of the EMERGENCY SWITCH located on the right side of the HTD.
2. Push the toggle switch up.
3. Verify that:
a. The message EMERGENCY briefly appears in the message display window.
b. The brake pipe pressure reading quickly drops to 0 PSI.
c. The LOW PRES message is displayed while the last car pressure is below 45 PSI.

How do you identify the “B” end of cars?
On cars with one hand brake, it is the end with the hand brake. On cars with more than one hand brake, it is the end with the “B” stenciled on it.

How do you determine the wheel or journal identification on cars?
Face the “B” end of the car. From the “B” end, axles are counted from 1, closest to you.

In an emergency brake application, if an adjacent main track or controlled siding may be obstructed, what should be done?
Warn other trains by radio, stating the exact location and status of the train and repeat as necessary. Place lighted fusees on adjacent tracks. Notify the train dispatcher or control operator and, when possible, foreign line railroads if necessary.

What trains are relieved of visual inspection required by an emergency brake application when it is known that the brake pipe pressure has been restored?
Solid loaded bulk commodity train, any train where emergency application of the brakes occurs at a speed about 30 MPH, or any train that is 5000 tons or less.

If physical characteristics prevent visual inspection following an emergency brake application, what should be done?
Inspect as much of the train as possible. The train may then be moved, but may not exceed 5 MPH for the distance necessary to complete the inspection. If excessive power is required to start of keep the train moving, stop immediately.

When a train on an adjacent track receives radio notification of an emergency brake application, how must that train pass the location specified?
At restricted speed and stop short of any portion of the stopped train fouling their track.

When a facing point move must be made over a spring switch, what should be done?
Test the spring switch.

When is it permissible to move against the current of traffic?
With authorization by track bulletin, track warrant, or as authorized by the train dispatcher.

How should movements against the current of traffic approaching block and interlocking signals?
Prepared to stop unless signals indicate proceed.

How will multiple main tracks be designated?
By name and number.

What is restricted speed?
When required to move at restricted speed, movement must be made at a speed which allows stopping within half the range of vision short of: Trains, engines, railroad cars, men or equipment fouling the track, stop signals, or derails or improperly lined switches. When a train or engine is required to move at restricted speed, the crew must keep a lookout for broken rail and not exceed 20 MPH. Comply with these requirements until the leading wheels reach a point where movement at restricted speed is no longer required.

What is the rule number of restricted speed?
Rule 6.27

What is rule 6.28?
Movement on other than main track.

When passing trains, what are crews required to do?
Inspect the passing train.

When inspecting a passing train, what conditions should the crew notify the passing train of?
Overheated journals, sticking brakes, sliding wheels, wheels not properly position on the rail, dragging equipment, insecure contents, signs of smoke or fire, headlight of marker improperly displayed, or any other dangerous condition.

When a train is stopped and is met or passed by another train, how should a trainman make an inspection?
From the ground if it is safe. During inclement weather, the crew may remain on the locomotive.

Who is responsible for knowing and not exceeding the maximum authorized speed for a train?
Conductors and engineers.

When possible, who should crew members notify of any condition that will delay a train or prevent a train from making the usual speed?
The train dispatcher.

When cars are shoved, kicked or a gravity switch move is made over road crossings at grade, what must occur?
An employee must be on the ground at the crossing to provide warning until the crossing is occupied, except when gates are fully lowered or at crossings fitted with flashing light or passive warning devices when it is clearly seen that no traffic is approaching or stopped.

At what speed should shoving movements over crossings at grade be made?
Lower than 15 MPH.

When an employee observes an automatic warning device that is malfunctioning, what should be done?
Report the malfunction to the train dispatcher and notify all affected trains.

If a clearance point is not indicated or visible, how can you determine the clearance point of a track?
Stand outside the rail of the adjacent track and extend arm towards the equipment. When unable to touch the equipment, leave equipment at least an additional 50 feet into the track.

In what situations may equipment be left fouling an adjacent track?
On a main track, fouling a siding switch when the switch is lined for the main track. On a siding, fouling a main track switch, when the switch is lined for siding. In a yard switching lead, fouling a yard track switch when the switch is line for the yard switching lead. Or on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading into the industry.

When are spring and dual control switches considered hand operated switches?
When they are operated by hand.

Who is responsible for the position of the switch in use?
The employee handling the switch.

When handling switches, what should you make sure of?
The switches properly lined for the intended route. The points fit properly and the target corresponds with the intended route. When operating a switch with a latch, the handler should avoid stepping on the latch except when throwing the switch. After locking a switch, they test to ensure it is secured. The witch is not operated while equipment is fouling, standing on or moving over the switch. When equipment has entered a track, the switch to that track is not lined away until the equipment has passed the clearance point.

What is the normal position of a main track switch?
For main track movement.

In what situations may a main track switch be left open?
In CTC territory within track and time limits. When attended by a crew member. During switching operations. For another train or engine when the switch is attended by a member of that crew. Within ABS territory as instructed by the dispatcher. In TWC territory when authorized by track warrant.

What is the target color on the main track when the switch is lined in other than the normal position?
Red.

When lining a main track switch, what is the proper place to stand while waiting for movement to pass over the switch?
Go to the opposite side of the track, 150 feet from the switch, and not return until movement is complete. If that is not possible, stand at least 20 feet from the switch stand.

When must a spring switch be tested?
When making a facing point movement over the spring switch and the block signal governing movements over the switch indicates stop, stop and proceed or restricted speed. Also if the the switch point indicator indicates stop and inspect the switch, or if the switch is not protected by a block signal or switch point indicator.

What is the normal position of switches connecting any track, except the main track to a siding?
For the siding.

What is the normal position of crossover switches?
For other than the crossover movement.

What type of switches can be run through?
Spring switches or variable switches.

When conflicting movement is closely approaching a switch, what should not be done?
The track must not be fouled, or the twitch operated.

If an engine or car partially runs through a switch, what should be done?
Continue movement over the switch. The engine or car must not change direction over a damaged switch.

What should be done if a signal is absent, or a white light is displayed where a colored light should be?
Regard the signal as displaying its most restrictive indication.

If a train overruns any block signal that requires it to stop, what must the crew do?
Warn other trains at once by radio, strop the train immediately, and report it to the train dispatcher.

When may a train comply with the next signal’s indication?
When its aspect can be clearly seen and the signal governs the track where movement is occurring or will be made.

When is a train considered delayed in block?
When it stops or its speed drops below 10 MPH.

What should a train do if it is delayed in block in ABS territory?
Proceed at restricted speed. The train must maintain this speed until the next signal is visible, that signal displays a proceed indication, and the track to that signal is clear.

What should a train do if it is delayed in block in CTC or manual interlocking limits?
Proceed prepared to stop at the next signal until the next signal is visible and that signal displays a proceed indication.

How should a train proceed when a train enters a block with no governing signal?
At restricted speed until the leading wheels have passed the next governing signal of the end of the block system.

How should a train proceed if the previous indication is unknown?
At restricted speed until the leading wheels have passed the next governing signal of the end of the block system.

How should movements be made if the train is moving in the opposite direction from which the block was entered?
At restricted speed until the leading wheels have passed the next governing signal of the end of the block system.

When a signal requires movement at restricted speed and you’re leaving a block system, when can the train resume maximum speed?
For two miles or until leading wheels pass the opposing distant signal.

What should be done at a stop indication in CTC territory?
A crew member must immediately contact the control operator unless within track and time limits.

What should be done at a stop indication at manual interlockings?
A crew member must immediately contact the control operator.

What should be done at a stop indication at automatic interlockings?
Work the box. If the signal continues to display stop indication and there is no conflicting movement, the train must move at restricted speed.

When may a crew member operate a dual control switch by hand?
After receiving authorization from the control operator.

At what point should a dual control switch be put back into power?
After at least one engine or car has passed over the switch points, unless otherwise instructed by the control operator.

What is rule 9.14?
Movement with the current of traffic.

What is rule 9.15?
Track permits.

What are track permits used for?
Movement against the current of traffic in ABS/9.14 territory.

At a stop and proceed indication, what are situations that allow the train to pass the signal at restricted speed without stopping?
To leave the main track when the switch is lined for movement and the track is clear from the signal to the clearance point. To continue on the main track when meeting or passing a train, and the main track is clear to the opposite end of the siding where a train is fouling the main track. To permit an engine with or without cars to coupe to its train or to a standing cut of cars, if the track between the engine and cars is clear.To enter a switch that is less than 1000 feet beyond the signal and the employee in charge of the switch has granted permission for movement. When authorized by the control operator.

In ABS territory, how should you enter the main track from a siding? Assume authority has already been obtained.
Open the switch and wait five minutes at the switch to establish block signal protection. If at the end of the five minutes the employee does not hear or see movement, the train may enter the signaled track.

What are the situations that don’t require a five minute wait when operating a hand operated switch? 11 exceptions.
Switch is equipped with an electric lock. Track occupancy indicator indicates track is clear. Block signal governing movement to signaled track indicates proceed. Block signals governing movements on the signaled track indicates that no train is approaching from either direction. Block to be entered is occupied by a train, engine, or car that is standing or moving away from the switch to be used. Main track between siding switch is occupied by a train that has been met or a standing train that will be passed. Train is entering a main track outside of yard limits for authorized movement against the current of traffic. Rule 6.14 (restricted limits) is in effect, provided movement does not occur beyond restricted limits for five minutes after the main track circuit is fouled, unless a block signal displays a proceed indication. Track permit authorizes movement. Track warrant outside yard limits authorizes “work between” two specific points.