GACE – general special education

Diana v. State Board of Education
1970, resulted in the decision that all children must be tested in their native language.
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
What terms did IDEA change?
“handicapped” to “disabilities”
What changes were made in 1990 to the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975?
specific teminology
What does EHA stand for?
Education for all Handicapped Children Act
What type of assisting technology device is excluded from IDEA?
surgically implanted devices
What factors relate to the eligibility for learning disabilities?
discrepancy between potential and performance
What does ADA stand for?
Americans with Disabilities Act
What is provided by the ADA?
*signed same year as IDEA by President Bush
*gives protection to all people on basis of race, sex, national origin and religion
* = opportunities to persons with disabilities in employment, public accommodations,transportation, government services & telecommunication
What was established by IDEA 2004?
no single assessment will be used to determine special education qualification – minority & bilingual
IEP’s have multiple sections, give examples
academic achievements & functional performance
What is required to be eligible for IDEA?
student must have a disability that fits into one category listed in the IDEA law
What is required to be eligible for a 504?
must meet definition of a person with disability, meet requirements of a particular program in spite of disability. school, business facility must be federally funded
What does FAPE stand for?
Free Appropriate Public Education
What is provided by FAPE?
special ed and related services are provided at public expense; meet standards of state education agency; include preschool, elementary and secondary education; conforms to IEP
What is a resource room?
regular school environment supervised by a teacher certified in disability
What is stated in Public Law 94-142?
match child’s education needs with appropriate education services; include parents in education decisions; allow parent to provide input
Do self managed student stay in a regular class?
yes
What is required by a student with mild learning and behavioral disability?
require modification in classroom instruction
Define learning disabled
discrepancy between achievement and potential
explain zero reject
adhere to LEA (Local education agency) reporting and free, appropriate public education
explain adaptive skills
hold cup? reach/grasp for item?
True or False – mental retardation characterized as often indistinguishable from normal developing children at an early age
true
define emotional /behavior disorder
poor social skills, poor academic achievers
give an example of emotional behavior
attention seeking
How is autism categorized in IDEA?
autism is a separate exceptional category developmental disability that affects verbal/nonverbal communication
What must be given to parents, in writing, to parents when proposing a child’s education placement?
due process safeguards
True of False
Majority of students receiving special services are enrolled mostly in regular classes.
True or False
students receiving special services appear different from their peers
In terms of special education, what would be the MOST restrictive environment?
institutional setting
What is assessed in an IEP?
present level of academic and functioning
Define normalization
opportunity for persons with disability to live as close to normal as possible
Examples of developmental disabilities
congenital conditions, like spina bifida, deafness, blindness or profound mental retardation, kids who contract diseases like polio/meningitis and are left in an incapacitating functional state
What is defined in statute 300.53.0300.5?
defines children with a disability mentally retarded, hard of hearing, speech impaired, visually impaired, seriously emotionally disturbed
What influences normality in child behavior?
society’s attitudes and cultural beliefs
What is a CST?
child study team
Explain how a CST works
meets 1st time without parents, teachers take child’s learning concerns to school counselor, counselor contacts parents for permission to perform screening
What does federal hope to achieve for students with disabilities?
First to perform remedial intervention in classroom after the student is identified as being at risk academically and socially
What to constitutional amendments leave education up to the states?
9th & 10th
What does IDEA state with regards to the assessing of a child?
it should be continuous and on a regular basis
In order to prevent bias and discrimination in assessment, what must be provided?
Evaluation materials used to assess a child must be in native language or other mode of communication
explain a “group” test
examiner monitors several students at same time
What type of testing is appropriate for evaluation of student for eligibility and placement or individualized program planning in special education?
individualized testing
What type of test is the LEAST appropriate for individual program planning?
norm referenced
What type of information can be provided by a criterion referenced test?
information about whether a student has mastered prerequisite skills
test measuring the content of a social studies unit prepared by a classroom teacher covering on es aspect of general curriculum is an example of what type of test.
informal test
test comparing student progress with that of peers of same age or grade level on a national basis, is an example of what type of test
formal test
extent to which a test measures what its authors or users claim that it measures is the _____ of the test
validity
appropriateness of sample items used to measure a criterion, acculturation of norm groups as compared to that of population being measured, reliability of test
test validity
A scholastic aptitude test checked against predictive success in academic endeavors, which type of validity is one attempting to establish?
criterion related
refers to an individual’s experiential background
acculturation
fair assessment relates to –
representation, acculturation, language
What type of testing do kids in a regular classroom receive?
testing primarily related to promotion by grade level
Even if guessing results in a correct response, it introduces error into a test score into interpretation of the results. What does this represent?
true factor that affects reliability of the test
Give an example of test-retest
survey or test group, then re-administer same evaluation two weeks later
When would an oral response test not be a good idea?
when assessing something like handwriting
When is an intelligence test used?
to establish learning potential
What does an intelligence test assess?
abstract reasoning comprehension
Where must an IQ fall for a person to be diagnosed with mental retardation?
2 standard deviation points below mean
What do achievement tests measure?
student’s skill development in academic content areas
What is a prerequisite skill?
Skill which must be demonstrated before instruction on a specific task can begin
What is assessed by criterion referenced measures?
student’s functional capabilities and entry level skills
term for altering of tasks to match student’s rate of learning
pacing
What are two ways to pace?
alter subject content or rate at which tasks are presented
Acculturation
Differences in experiential background.
A test which measure students’ skill development in academic content areas, is classified as what type of test?
achievement
What type of test best measures a student’s functional capabilities and entry level skills?
criterion referenced measures
What term is used for altering of tasks to match the student’s rate of learning?
pacing – alter subject content & rate at which tasks are presented
Two ways an effective teacher cooperate packing as a means of matching a student’s rate of learning?
selected content is presented based upon prerequisite skills & task presentations are paced during optimum time segments
explain direct versus indirect services of special education teachers
direct services are those in which personnel work with students in the classroom to re-mediate difficulties. Indirect, special ed consult with reg classroom teachers to assist them in teaching students with mild disabilities.
give an example of tactile perception
identifying a rough surface with eyes closed
example of kinesthetic excercise
playing a game like “looby loo”
What modalities are frequently used in the learning process?
auditory, visual, and tactile
Give an example of cross-modal perception involving integrating visual stimuli to an auditory verbal process
describing a picture
What is generalization?
occurrence of a learned behavior in the presence of a stimulus other than the one that produced the initial response (ex: reading to math word problems)
method used to increase student engaged learning time by having students teach other studewnts
collaborative learning
According to Henley, Ramsey & Algozzine, what are the steps to establishing cooperative learning groups?
teacher selects members of each learning group, teacher directly teaches cooperative group skills, teacher assigns cooperative group activities, teacher evaluates group efforts
example of environmental elements which influence learning styles
sound, light, temperature and design
if a student is predominantly a visual learner, he may learn more effectively by
watching a film strip
teaching student how to manage their own behavior in school is what type of learning strategy
cognitive
What factors do an effective teacher vary her instructional presentations and response requirements?
student needs, task at hand, learning situation
Cognitive modeling is an essential component of which self-training approach?
self-instructional training
self-instruction
child performs the task while instructing himself, silently or overtly
self-monitoring
refers to procedures by which the learner records whether or not he is engaging in certain behaviors, particularly those that would lead to increased academic achievement and/or social behavior
the adult model performs a task while verbally instructing himself
cognitive modeling
strategies specifically designed to move the learner from dependence to independence include
demonstration imitation, assistance, prompting, and verbal instruction; cognitive modeling and self-guidance through overt, faded overt & covert stages
A student needs continuous feedback in order to experience small, incremental achievements. What type of instructional material would best meet this need?
programmed materials allow student to chart his progress as he achieves each goal & he can monitor himself and take responsibility for his successes
What type of question would most directly evaluate the utility of instructional material?
Are the materials organized in a useful manner?
What recently developed assistive device can “read” aloud sections from a newspaper received electronically?
personal companion
Which electronic devise can assist by dialing a telephone, turning book pages and drinking from a cup?
manipulator robots
behaviorists contend that all behavior is
learned
procedure employed to decrease targeted behaviors include
punishment and extinction
Which description best characterizes primary reinforcers of an edible nature?
natural, unconditioned, innately motivating
example of secondary reinforcer
praise or a hug
What is key to encourage the individual to continue the targeted behavrio
timing and quality of the reinforcer
what principle state that any activity in which a student voluntarily participates on a frequent basis can be used as a reinforcer for any activity in which the student seldomnpaticipates
Premack Principle
dispensing school supplies is a component associated with which type of reinforcement system
activity reinforcement
which type of reinforcement system is most easily generalized into other settings
social reinforcement
the number of times the behavior is displayed in a given period
rate or frequency
which category of behaviors would most likely be found on a behavior rating scale
disruptive, acting out; shy, withdrawn; aggressive (physical or verbal)
age appropriate
means mental age, not chronological age
target behaviors must be
observable, measurable, definable
Carrow Elicited Language Inventory test is designed to give the examiner what type of info about a child
the child’s expressive grammatical competence
Carrow Elicited Language Inventory test assesses which type of language component?
syntax
the study of significant units of speech sounds
phonology
study of the smallest unit of language that convey meaning
morphology
system of rules for making grammatically correct sentences
syntax
study of relationships between words and grammatical forms in a language, and their underlying meaning
semantics
smallest unit of meaningful language
morpheme
ex: “er” on its own has no meaning
which component of language involves language content rather than the form of language
semantics
Which language skills involve encoding?
self-expression
child who has difficulty in verbalizing his thoughts and feelings has a problem with what
encoding language
child who has difficulty understanding what is said to him, relating it to situations with which hes is familiar, or applying it to a new or different situation, may have a problem
decoding language
give an example of a language disorder
aphasia
give an example of a speech disorder
disfluency
people with language disorders exhibit what traits
difficulty in comprehending questions, commands or statements
inability to adequately express own thoughts
delayed language
interrupted language development
qualitatively different language
total absence of language
people with speech disorders exhibit what traits
unintelligible speech or speech that is difficult to understand & articulation disorders
speech-flow disorders
unusual voice quality
obvious emotional discomfort when trying to communicate
damage to nerves or brain centers with control muscles used in speech
ability to build and maintain interdependent relationships between persons.
social interpersonal skills
social maturity may be evidenced by the student’s
ability to cooperate, following procedures formulated by an outside party, achieving appropriate levels of independence
the work-study movement
focused upon the delivery of services within a specific type of inter-agency agreement
the career education movement
was targeted for the general populace of students but included special education students as well
in career education specific training and preparation required the wold of work occurs during what phase
career preparation
what is most descriptive of vocational training in special education
instruction focuses upon self help skills, social-interpersonal skills, motor skills, rudimentary academic skills, simple occupational skills, and lifetime leisire and occupational skills
individual with disabilities in need of employ ability training, as well as a job would go to which community service agency for assistance
rehabilitation services
Locus of control
Refers to the way a person perceives the relation between his efforts and outcome of an event.
Glasser’s Reality Therapy
Makes use of an alternative behavior plan, a form of group therapy
Eustress
Sort if elation or release of anxiety
Self monitoring
Choosing behaviors and alternatives and monitoring those actions
Self evaluation
Deciding the effectiveness of the behavior in solving the problem
Self reinforcement
Telling oneself that one is capable of achieving success
REI
Regular education intervention or inclusion
PL 99-457
Individualized family service plan – provides services for kids ages 3-5 and their families
Honig v. Doe, 1998
Where student has presented an immediate threat to other, that student may be temporarily suspended up to 10 school days to give the school and parents time to review the IEP and discuss possible alternatives to the current placement.