FTCE Professional Education

Norm-Referenced Tests
compare students based on a normative sample of students who have already completed the test. Students are then ranked to see where they land on the bell-curve.
Which tests limit the number of students who can score well?
Norm-referenced tests, because each students who completes the exam is ranked with the % scores in relation to the sample.
It is favorable to provide feedback to tests when?
After a delay of a day or two
Praise has been shown to be most effective when?
It is authentic and low-key and is used frequently
Choral chant?
When students repeat basic facts, spellings, and laws
What are some examples of controlled interruptions?
missing supplies, late to class. They are minor disruptions that can be minimized with procedures that are already in place.
Non-directive statements show?
a student that a teacher is listening, but not making a judgment or pointing the conversation in a specific direction
According to Piaget, children under the age of 8?
Do not have the ability of understanding the language or to grasp complexities. Teachers should use simple language when working with these children.
Marshall Rosenberg categorizes learners as?
rigid-inhibited, undisciplined, acceptance-anxious, and creative.
In inductive thinking students…
derive concepts and definitions based on the information provided to them, (given to them) which can be fostered through personal-discovery activities
Bloom classified educational objectives into a systems that was divided into three parts
cognitive (memory and reasoning), affective (emotions), and psychomotor (physical abilities)
Long term memory is said to be?
unlimited and permanent.
Spelling errors do not allow for?
divergent or creative thinking
Applying spelling rules or guidelines to improve spelling would be an example of what?
deductive reasoning
Sequential language acquisition occurs when?
A student learns a second language after mastering the first
The educator has legal obligations to protect a student from
an abusive home environment, but is not required to report the abuse through the state of Florida code of ethics.
An example of cognitive learning theory in practice would be?
using a manipulative to teacher math for students under the age of 11.
According to the operant model in behavior theory, negative reinforcement is…
removing a stimulus which causes a behavior to increase. All reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
Students diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder would not exhibit a delay in…
physical growth
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency Test
the aspects of language proficiency strongly related to literacy and academic achievement
The Natural Approach (ESOL)
students acquire a new vocabulary through experiences and associations with words because the words are used in meaningful ways and contexts.
Willig and Lee Four Stages of Development (ESOL)
pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
assists the students in the transition from a language arts program in which the content is made comprehensible through the use of ESOL strategies
Scaffolding (ESOL)
students should be provided with steps of learning that allow for consolidation and success.
CLOZE Testing
students draw on several language skill areas. These are reading tests that provide an indication of overall language ability and consist of passages from which words are omitted at regular intervals
A transition statement is used for…
informing a student of what the expected tasks are as the class moves from one subject to another
A ridirect occurs when…
a teacher asks one student to react to the response of another student
High-Ordered Activity….
tests the students ability to apply information, evaluate information, and create new information
Transitions allow students to…
be aware of future events, topics, and expectations. It helps them with the pace of the classroom and the teaching
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
it has been shown that students can internalize what a teacher expects of them and will perform at that level, whether its positive or negative.
Kallison Jr found that retention was increased when a teacher…
provided an outline detailing what would be discussed during a lesson and a summary of the lesson at the end
In inductive teaching…
the students are provided with examples and non-examples are are expected to derive the definition from this information.
in Deductive teaching, the teacher provides
various examples
A discovery learning lesson is…
one where the class is organized to learn through their own active involvement in the lesson
the egrule method
moves from specific example to general rules or definitions
Who wrote the book, “Orbis Pictus”?
Comenius. He believed in using the senses to assist the intellect
Oral language proficiency is easily acquired through…
daily living experiences
According to James Cummins, reading and listening are…
receptive skills which always exceed the productive skills of speaking and writing
The goal of the maintenance bilingual education model is to…
maintain that native language of the second-language learned.
According to Krashen and Terrell, the topic centered language approach…
develops basic communication skills with the way individuals naturally acquire language
Instructional lesson modification includes…
providing an overview and identifying key concepts
When a teacher asks the class if they agree or disagree with a student’s response, the teacher is using
redirect
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Each student is measured against uniform objectives or criteria.
Performance-based Assessment
Allows students to use higher-level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data
Information Processing Theories
Focuses on the process, how the learner arrives at a response or answer. Believes intelligent thinking can be taught.
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
Three features of learning: a) the mechanics or components of intelligence. b) the learner’s experiences, c) the learner’s context.
Metacognition
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
What are the six levels of Taxonomy?
The six levels of Taxonomy are:
1) knowledge, 2) comprehension, 3) application, 4) analysis, 5) synthesis, 6) evaluation.
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development
Four stages to describe intellectual development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
formal operational stage (adolescents and adults)
The first compulsory education law was passed in
Massachusetts
The child labor law was passed requiring all children under 14 can be employed without attending public or private schools for at least 6 months prior by who?
Massachusetts
Who established the 1st compulsory education law requiring all children between 8 and 14 must attend school for at least 12 weeks per year?
Massachusetts
The first vocational schools were established by who?
Middle Atlantic Colonies
Private schools with no public funding began where?
Virginia
The first parochial schools were established where?
Pennsylvania
The law that did NOT established schools but required that parents make sure their kids could read and understand the laws and religions of their community was what?
First compulsory law (Massachusetts)
Who found and proposed that there are 5 steps in the teaching process?
Herbart
The learning theory based on the assumption that people can learn from observing other people’s behavior and consequences to those behaviors.
social learning theory
The type of assessment that allows students to be creative in their solutions to problems, questions, and requires higher level thinking
performance based assessment
a clear and precise definition of a learning goal that should be performed as well as an accurate means to measure that goal as students strive to achieve it
operational definition
internal variables represent
nature
the environment around us represents
nurture
the type of lesson that involves higher level thinking by both teacher and students and a result in higher student motivation, interest, and retention
inductive lessons
putting information together in a new way, developing a new way of solving problems
Blooms taxonomy – synthesis
how learners are a like and how they are different
intERdividual knowledge
meta cognition was created by who?
Flavell
What the learner knows or understands about themselves
intRAdividual knowledge
Self-examination and self-evaluation are both examples of what?
meta cognitive thinking
a technique to help students identify and retain significant information
emphasis