a unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus
the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces
Chemical Bond
Any of several forces of mechanism, especially the ionic bonds, covalent bod, and metallic bond, by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule or crystal.
an electrically neutral subatomic particle in the baron family, having mass 1839 times that of the electron
a stable, positively charged subatomic particles in the baryon family having a mass 1836 times that of the electron
a stable subatomic particle in the lepton family having a rest mass of 9.1066×10-28 grams of a unit negative electric charge
atomic number
the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
one of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers
spontaneous emission of radiation, either directly from unstable atomic nuclei of as a consequence of a nuclear reaction
Covalent bond
a chemical formed by sharing one or more electrons especially pairs of electrons between atoms
ionic Bond
chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges, characteristics of salts
hydrogen bond
chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule attracted to a elctronegative atom, especially nitrogen, oxygen or fluoride usually on another molecule
Potential of Hydrogen. the logarithm and reciprocal of hydrogen-ion
Amino acids
organic compound containing a amino group, a carboxylic group and any of various side groups, chemical message’s and intermediates in metabolism
group of complex organic macromolecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Components of substances such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies
compounds of nucleoside combined with phosphate group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA
nucleic acids
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. In the form of DNA and RNA control cellular function and heredity
a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained from fats and oils as byproduct of saponification and used as a solvent, antifreeze, and plasticizer.
a salt of phosphoric acid, PO4 3-, carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid
a molecule can join together with other small units to form polymers
Macromolecules ; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
organic substances, such as sugars, cellulose, gums, and starch, that are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and contain useful chemical energy.
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain, Any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of usually high molecular weight consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units, each a relatively light and simple molecule.
large polymers, four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue. Build up. Requires energy.
Scanning Electron Microscope
electrons bounce off surface. a microscope that produces an enlarged, three-dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light 1000 times greater than a light microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
father of microscopy-developed powerful microscopes-first to see and write about bacteria, years plants, living organisms in drop of water and circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries
special dyes used to color cells so that they can be seen under the microscope
A process where DNA fragments are separated according to size using electrical charges
a group of procedures that are primarily used to separate molecules that may have different charges, sizes or solubilities, by passing the molecules over or through as supporting medium by means of a liquid or gas
measurement of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation of a substance at different wavelengths of the spectrum
describes two or more structures that have similar forms, positions and origins despite the differences between their current functions
divergent evolution
evolution in which species that once were similar to an ancestral species diverge; occurs when populations adapt to different environmental conditions; may result in the formation of a new species
convergent evolution
where unclosely related organisms evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work,
evolution of a new species. occurs when organisms in a species can no longer interbreed (geographic isolation and reproductive isolation).
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
DNA Bases
the chemicals that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder A-T and C-G match A-adenine G-guanine C-cytosine T-thymine
Ribonucleic acid. Type of nucleic acid, typically single-stranded important for transcription and translation some are catalytic. , bases A, C, G, and U (not T);
Gene therapy
the process of treating a disease or disorder by replacing a dysfunctional gene with a functional one
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules, large carbohydrate made up of monosaccharides, ex. starch and glycogen
Properties of water
adhesion (to stick two like glue) cohesion(too combine)it dissolves many substances., Polarity, good solvent, capillary action, surface tension, adhesion, high freezing and boiling points, floats as a soild (less dense),
a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
a carbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings, polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Hard, nonliving material that makes up the cell wall of a plant
a carbohydrate that forms part of the exoskeleton of arthropods and other organisms, such as insects, crustaceans, fungi, and some algae
high energy source, twice as much as carbs. made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. saturated-solid at room temp. unsaturated-liquid at room temp.
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids.
water loving, molecules that are able to dissolve in water
Repelling, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water.
made up of four rings that are fused together; cholesterol hormones: cortisone, estrogen, testosterone, progesterone
Protein Functions
-builds, repairs, maintains body cells
-forms new tissue
-transport nutrients
-creates new tissue
-provides protective coating in skin, nails, and hair
cellular respiration
the process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, a substance that breaks up fat particles
enzyme lock and key theory
theory that the shape of the enzyme is specific because it fits into substrates like a key fits into a lock
enzyme induced fit theory
theory that the enzyme can stretch and bend to fit the substrates.
loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
bacteria, single cells without a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cells
…, These cells do not have a nucleus nor do they have any membrane-bound organelles…examples include Archae and Bacteria cells.
eukaryotic cells
larger & more complex, have nucleus, have many types of organelles, 2 types : animal & plant
cellular structures on which proteins are made
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a system of membranes that is found in a cell’s cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
Smooth ER
transports material in cell (without ribosomes)
Rough ER
contain ribosomes on the surface. this is abundant in cells that make many proteins like the pancreas, which produces many digestive enzymes.
Golgi complex
organelle that modifies, packages, and transports material out of the cell.
Contain enzymes to digest ingested material or damaged tissue
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
Plastids that contain colorful pigments, that may or may not partake in photosynthesis.
Cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
one of the components of the cytoskeleton serve as structural components within cells and are involved in many cellular processes including mitosis, cytokinesis, and vesicular transport., move materials inside cell
Passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution
(of a solution) having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
process by which certain cells can drink and incorporate droplets of fluid
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell, Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
sex cell or germ cell; eggs and sperm
granular material visible within the nucleus consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, & genetic content
having two homologous sets of chromosomes. 2N
of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes 1N
G1, S, G2, a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Telophase 1
2 daughter cells are formed, each daughter cell contains only one chromosome of the homologous pair.
Prophase 2
Chromosomes condense, spindles form in each new cell, and spindle fibers attach to chromosomes.
Metaphase 2
Centromeres of chromosomes line up randomly at the equator of each cell.
Anaphase 2
the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
Telophase 2
during this phase, four haploid daughter cells are created (each have 23 chromosomes)
Exergonic Reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
Activation Energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
Law of thermodynamics
#1: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only be changed in form. #2: When energy changes, it is converted from a more useful more concentrated form to a less useful, less concentrated form
breaking down molecule complex molecules to simple molecues, gives you energy
Endergonic reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
Substrate level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Gregor Mendel
Father of genetics. Experimented with pea plants and discovered law of dominance, ind. assortment, and segregation.
law of dominance
one trait or allele is dominant over another
Law of segregation
Mendel’s law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Law of independent assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
having two different alleles for a trait
Monohybrid cross
mating of two organisms that differ in only one trait
dihybrid cross
a cross that considers two pairs of contrasting traits More combos possible
genetic makeup of an organism
an organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits
punnet squares
A diagram used to determine gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross (Used to predict and compare Genetic Cross
incomplete dominace
one allele is not completly dominante over the other, a individual displays a phenotype that is intermediate between the two parents
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their EX: red hair and freckles,
sex linked traits
characteristic, such as red-green color blindness, controlled by genes on the X chromosome; also called an X-linked trait
inborn errors of metabolism
Genetic disorders that result from deficient or absent enzymes.
lethal alleles
Mutated genes that are capable of causing death