French Revolution

Factions
dissenting groups of people who competed for power
Marquis de Lafayette-
Parisian citizens appointed him as commander of Paris’s armed forces during the storming of the Bastille (king lost control of Paris)
Émigré
French nobles who fled France in 1789 and influenced Prussia/Austria to declare restoration of French monarchy
Olympe de Gouges-
wrote Rights of Woman, which applied the official Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen to women explicitly in each case
sans-culottes
– radical faction predominantly from working; separate from National Convention; very influential on National Convention; had an economic agenda; responsible for storming Bastille, marching to Versailles, driving the king to Tuleries, and the September Massacres
Marie Antoinette
sought after when the women marched to Versailles; taken back to Paris along with husband, son, and legislative assembly; wife of King Louis XVI
Republic
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
Jacobins
one of the factions under the legislative assembly; named after political club that came to dominate legislative assembly; committed to spreading liberal revolution all over Europe, resulting in France becoming polarized in political views
What political and social reforms did the National Assembly institute in the first stage of the French Revolution?
They gave more rights to the poor and lessened then noble’s rights.
How was the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen similar to the American Declaration of Independence?
The declarations of the rights of man and the citizen is similar to the American Declaration of Independence because both declare the rights of the people even the peasants.
What did the Constitution of 1791 do, and how did it reflect Enlightenment ideas?
Enlightenment ideas were all about change in government which the constitution of 1791 did, it changed the government from an absolute monarchy to a limited monarchy.
Describe what happened to France’s constitutional monarchy because of the French Revolution.
The monarchy did not exist anymore and all the power came from the people after the French Revolution.
Marseilles
a thick, strong, figured or striped cotton cloth with a raised weave, somewhat resembling piqué: originally made in Marseille
Nationalism
The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals.
Guillotine
an instrument for beheading by means of a heavy blade dropped between two grooved uprights
Reign of Terror
The period of the French Revolution during which thousands of people were executed
Suffrage
The right or privilege of voting
Robespierre
French revolutionary leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror, he was known as an austere and incorruptible man. His laws permitting the confiscation of property and arrest of suspected traitors, many of whom were guillotined, led to his own arrest and execution without trial
Summarize the goals and actions of the Jacobins
The Jacobins wanted to get rid of any traces of the old social order so they seized nobles’ lands and abolished their titles. They also tried, convicted, and executed the king.
Why was the Committee of Public Safety created
It was created to deal with threats to France.
How did the Reign of Terror cause the National Convention to be replaced by the Directory?
The Convention feared for their own lives. The Convention beheaded Robespierre and the convention wrote a new constitution which creates the Directory.
How do you think French nationalism affected the war between France and the powers of Europe?
I think it boosted morale and encouraged the French to keep fighting.
Plebiscite
ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue
Annex
add a territory to an existing state or country
Guerilla warfare
fighting carried on through hit-and-run aids
Abdicate
to give up or step down from power
Legitimacy
principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
Napoleonic Code
body of French civil laws introduced in 1804; served as model for many nations’ civil codes
Continental System
blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods; ultimately unsuccessful
Scorched-earth policy
military tactic in which soldiers destroy everything in their path to hurt the enemy
Congress of Vienna
assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together; met from September 1814 to June 1815
Concert of Europe
a system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace in Europe; resulted from the post-Napoleon era Quadruple Alliance
Describe the resistance Napoleon encountered as countries grew to resent him
Renewed nationalism fueled the resistance in places such as Germany and the Netherlands. Countries that fought against the French army used tactics such as scorched-earth policy in Russia and guerrilla warfare in Spain.
11. If you were a French voter in 1803, how would you have voted on the plebiscite to make Napoleon emperor? Explain.
if I were a French voter in 1803, I would have voted against the plebiscite to make Napoleon Emperor because some of his policies were unfair, especially towards women and it wouldn’t help France’s instability.
List the reforms that Napoleon made as leader of France
The reforms were that he controlled prices, encouraged new industry, promoted public schools and public works, and instituted new law code.
How does the peacekeeping solution adopted by the Congress of Vienna compare to today’s peacekeeping missions?
It established a balance of power and protected the system of monarchy. The map of Europe was redrawn, in order to contain France with the other strong nations, and this promoted the principle of legitimacy.
How did the Congress of Vienna try to restore the balance of power in Europe?
It redrew national boundaries, surrounded France with strong countries, and created a Quadruple Alliance
What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era?
Some causes of the French Revolution were social inequalities between the three estates, the spread of Enlightenment ideas, and economic problems such as huge government debt, rising bread prices, and the failure of Louis XVI to make financial reforms. The effects were the formation of the National Assembly, the storming of the Bastille, the adoption of the Declaration of Man and the Citizen, the abolishment of the monarchy, and, eventually, the Reign of Terror. The chaos that ensued from the first ten years of the Revolution led the people
Robespierre
Radical revolutionary _____ was a leader of the Reign of Terror.
Marquis de Lafayette
The moderate revolutionary leader _____ fought alongside George Washington and was head of the French National Guard.
Olympe de Gouges
During the French Revolution, _____ was executed for demanding equal rights for women
The women who marched on Versailles refused to leave until the king agreed to
give up the throne.
bourgeoisie
Bankers and merchants were members of the _____, or French middle class
Before the revolution, to what social class did the clergy belong?
the First Estate.
In France’s old order, which of the following groups were members of the bourgeoisie?
merchants
In 1789, the delegates to the Estates-General that broke away and declared themselves to be the National Assembly were from the
Third Estate
The poorest members of the Third Estate were
the peasants and urban workers
What was one important result of the Estates-General?
the National Assembly
What was the model for the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
the Declaration of Independence
Participants in the Tennis Court Oath swore to continue meeting until they were able to bring about
a just constitution.
The National Assembly voted to pay off the huge government debt by selling lands owned by
the nobility
In 1792, what form of government did the radicals create at the new National Convention?
a constitutional monarchy
During the Reign of Terror, condemned people were beheaded using the _____.
the
Guillotine
During the Reign of Terror, trials and executions were carried out under the authority of
the Committee of Public Safety.
When radicals took control of the Legislative Assembly in the fall of 1792, they extended voting rights to
all male citizens.
Robespierre believed that France could achieve a “republic of virtue” only through
use of terror.
In the Declaration of Pilnitz, the king of Prussia and emperor of Austria
they threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy.
Which nation was able to remain outside Napoleon’s European empire?
Britain
What war tactic helped the Russians defeat Napoleon
the scorched-earth policy
Why did the Congress of Vienna redraw the national boundaries of Europe?
to return the boundaries to where they were before Napoleon
After overthrowing the Directory in 1799, Napoleon and his followers set up a three-man governing board
the consulate
A major goal of the decision makers at the Congress of Vienna was to
suppress revolutionary uprisings throughout Europe.

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