Foundations of Marketing Chapter 4

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marketing research
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the systematic design, collection, interpretation, and reporting of information to help marketers solve specific marketing problems or take advantage of marketing opportunities
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exploratory research
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research conducted to gather more information about a problem to make a tentative hypothesis more specific
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customer advisory boards
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small groups of actual customers who serve as sounding board for new-product ideas and offer insights into their feelings and attitudes towards a firm’s products and other elements of its marketing strategy
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focus group
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an interview that is often conducted informally without a structured questionnaire, in small groups of 8 to 12 people, to observe interaction when members are exposed to an idea or concept
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conclusive research
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research designed to verify insights through objective procedures and to help marketers in marketing decisions
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descriptive research
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research conducted to clarify the characteristics of certain phenomena to solve a particular problem
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experimental research
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research allows marketers to make casual inferences about relationships
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research design
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an overall plan for obtaining the information needed to address a research problem of issue
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hypothesis
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an informed guess or assumption about a certain problem or set of circumstances
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reliability
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a condition that exists when a research technique produces almost identical results in repeated trails
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validity
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a condition that exists when a research method measures what it is supposed to measure
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primary data
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data observed and recorded or collected directly from respondents
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secondary data
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data compiled both inside and outside the organization from some purpose other than the current investigation
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population
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all the elements, units, or individuals of interest for a specific study
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sample
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a limited number of units chosen to represent the characteristics of a total population
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sampling
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the process of selecting representative units from a total population
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probability sampling
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a type of sampling in which every element in the population being studied has a known chance of being selected for a study
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random sampling
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a form of probability sampling in which all units in a population have an equal chance of appearing in the sample, and the various events that can occur have an equal or known chance of taking place
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stratified sampling
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a type of probability sampling in which the population is divided into groups with a common attribute and a random sample is chosen within each group
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non-probability sampling
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a sampling technique in which there is no way to calculate the likelihood that a specific element of the population being studied will be chosen
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quota sampling
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a non-probrobability sampling technique in which researchers divide the population into groups and then arbitrary choose participants for each group
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mail survey
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a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire sent through the mail
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telephone survey
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a research method in which respondents’ answers to a questionnaire are recorded by an interviewer on the phone
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telephone depth interview
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an interview that combines the traditional focus group’s ability to probe with the confidentiality provided by telephone surveys
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personal interview survey
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a research method in which participants respond to survey questions face-to-face
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in-home (door-to-door) interview
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a personal interview that takes place in the respondents home
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shopping mail intercept interviews
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a research method that involved interviewing a percentage of individuals passing by “intercept” points in a mall
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on-site computer interview
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a variation of the shopping mall intercept interview in which respondents complete a self-administered questionnaire displayed on a computer monitor
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online survey
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a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire via email or on a website
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crowdsourcing
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calls for taking tasks usually performed by a marketer or researcher and outsourcing them to a crowd, or potential marker, through an open call
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statistical interpretation
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analysis of what is typical and what deviates from the average
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marketing information systems (MIS)
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a framework for managing and structuring information gathered regularly from sources inside and outside the organization
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database
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a collection of information arranged for easy access and retrieval
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single-source data
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information provided by a single marketing research firm
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marketing decision support system (MDSS)
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customized computer software that aids marketing managers in decision making

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