Forensics Ch. 12 Serology

Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be classified by its ___________
type
T/F: No two individuals, except for identical twins, can be expected to have the same combination of blood types or antigens
true
_________is the fluid portion of unclotted blood
plasma
the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed is called the _______
serum
________ transport oxygen from the lings to the body and tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs
red blood cells
on the surface of red blood cells are chemical substances called________ which impart blood type characteristics to the cells
antigens
type A individuals have ___________ antigens on the surface of their red blood cells
A
Type O individuals have (both/neither) A and B antigens on their red blood cells
neither
the presence or absence of the ______ and ______ antigens on the red blood cells determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O system
A, B
the D antigen is also known as the _____ antigen
Rh
Serum contains proteins known as _______, which destroy or inactivate antigens
antibody
T/F: an antibody reacts with (any, only a specific) antigen
specific
T/F: agglutination describes the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody
true
type B blood contains ______antigens and anti-_____antibodies
B, A
type AB blood has (both/neither) anti-A (and/nor) anti-B
neither, nor
a drug-protein complex can be injected into an animal to form specific _____ for that drug
antibodies
the term ______ describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions
serology
type AB blood (is/is not) agglutinated by both anti-A and anti-B serum
is not
type B red blood cells agglutinate when added to type (A, B) blood
A
type A red blood cells agglutinate when added to type (A,B,O) blood
AB
an immunological assay technique used to detect the presence of minute quantities of drugs in blood and urine is _____
RIA
The distribution of type A blood in the U.S. is approx. (42%,15%)
42%
the distribution of type AB blood in the U.S. is approx. (12%,3%)
3%
(all/most) blood hemoglobin has peroxidase-like activity
all
for many years, the most commonly used color test for identifying blood was the _____ color test
benzidine-caused cancer
___________ reagent reacts with blood, causing it to luminesce
luminol
blood can be characteri9zed as being of human origin by the ______test
precipitant
antigens and antibodies (can/cannot) be induced to move toward each toher under the influence of an electrical field
can
antibodies designed to interact with a specific antigen site are (monoclonal/polyclonal)
monoclonal
T/F: hybridoma cells are used to produce antigens designed to attack one and only one site on an antibody
false
______ are proteins that have important functions in regulating many of the body’s chemical reactions
enzymes
enzymes that exist in different forms in a population are (poly/monomorphic)
polymorphic
T/F: the shape of bloodstains may provide useful info regarding the direction, dropping distance and angle of impact of spattered blood
true
the basic unit of heredity is the ____
gene
genes are positioned on threadlike bodies called_____
chromosomes
all cells in the human body, except the reproductive cells, have _____ pairs of chromosomes
23
the sex of an offspring is always determined by the (mother/father)
father
genes that influence a given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair are known as______
alleles
when a pair of allelic genes are identical, the genes are said to be (homo/heterozygous)
homozygous
a (pheno/genotype) is an observable characteristic of an individual
phenotype
the combination of genes present in the cells of an individual is called the _____
genotype
a gene (will/will not) appear in a child when it is present in one of the parents
will not
a type B individual may have the genotype ______ or the genotype ______
Bb, BB, Bo
a type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible genotypes
AA,BB,AB
the ______ color test is used to locate and characterize seminal stains
acid phosphate
semen is unequivocally identified by the microscopic appearance of ______
sperm
males with a low sperm count have a condition known as (oligospermia/aspermia)
oligospermia
the protein _________ is unique to seminal plasma
p30
T/F: DNA may be transferred to an object through the medium of persipiration
true
T/F: seminal constituents may remain in the vagina for up to 6 days after intercourse
false