Forensics Book 10 – Flashcards

question
Examination and comparison of questioned documents with known material
answer
Document analysis
question
-any signature, handwriting, typewriting,or other written mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute
answer
Questioned document
question
-specially trained person who scientifically analyzes handwriting and other features in a document -May be called to crime-scene area or lab to examine the handwriting of ransom notes , threatening notes, or suicide notes
answer
Document expert
question
-analyze and compare various traits such as the appearance of letters of suspicious documents with known samples to help identify author of the document -May also be asked to detect changes that may have occurred in an original document
answer
Investigators
question
-differs from a document expert -studies the personality of the writer based on handwriting samples -the study of graphology is not necessarily accepted as part of forensic science but is possible indicator of writer's personality type
answer
Graphologist
question
-individual evidence because it is unique and personalized -since handwriting is difficult to disguise and forge, handwriting analysis is a good tool for including or excluding persons when determining a match between exemplars and questioned documents
answer
Handwriting
question
-Handwriting analysis played important forensic role during the trial of Bruno Richard Hauptmann -handwriting analysis of the many ransom notes, along with known handwriting samples and other evidence led to conviction -today his involvement is questioned because of manner in which samples were collected and how evidence was handled
answer
1930s
question
-U.S Court of Appeals determined that handwriting analysis qualified as a form of expert testimony -handwriting evidence became admissible in court provided that scientifically accepted guidelines are followed
answer
1999
question
-Scotland Yard -the F.B.I -the Secret Service -these companies use handwriting analysis in solving important cases
answer
Use Handwriting analysis
question
-occurs in everyone's handwriting depending on several factors Factors include: -different types of writing instruments -mood -age -whether individual is hurried or not
answer
Natural variations
question
-each person has a unique handwriting style -brain does the writing -adults show slight variation in handwriting because they've learned to write through basically same method -once a person starts writing subconsciously with characters formed as a result of habit, unique handwriting is formed
answer
Handwriting style
question
Twelve major characteristics are....
answer
Functions of letter form, line form, and formatting
question
Includes: -shape of letters -curve of letters -angle or slant of letters -proportional size of letters -use and appearance of connecting lines between letters -whether "t"'s crossed or "i"'a dotted
answer
Letter form
question
Includes: -smoothness of letters -darkness of lines in the upward compared to the downward stroke -line form is influenced by the speed of writing and pressure exerted while writing -choice of instrument can also influence line form
answer
Line form
question
Includes: -spacing between letters -spacing between words and lines -placement of words on a line -margins a writer leaves empty on a page
answer
Formatting
question
-do the letters flow or are they erratic or shaky?
answer
Line quality
question
-are letters equally spaced or crowded?
answer
Spacing
question
-is the ratio of height to width consistent ?
answer
Size consistency
question
-is the writing continuous or does the writer lift the pen?
answer
Continuous
question
-are capitals and lowercase letters connected and continuous ?
answer
Connecting letters
question
-are letters completely formed ? -or is a part of the letter missing ?
answer
Letters complete
question
-are there printed letters, cursive letters, or both?
answer
Cursive and printed letters
question
-is pressure equal when applied to upward and downward strokes?
answer
Pen pressure
question
Left, right , or variable ?
answer
Slant
question
-is the text on the line , above the line, or below the line ?
answer
Line habits
question
-are there fancy curls or loops ?
answer
Fancy curls or loops
question
Correct or misplaced ? Where are t's crossed ? Top ? Middle ? Bottom ? Are I's dotted ?
answer
Placement of crosses on "t"s and dots on "i"s
question
.....is to answer questions about a suspicious document and determine authorship using a variety of scientific methods
answer
Goal of forensic handwriting analysis
question
-based on principle of identification that two writings are the product of one person if the similarities are unique and there are no fundamental unexplainable differences
answer
Methods
question
-documents made, adapted, or falsified with the intention of deceiving someone
answer
Forgeries
question
1. The questioned document and the standards(exemplars) are examined and detectable characteristics are recorded 2. Characteristics of the questioned item are compared with the known standard. For samples similar to questionable document thorough analysis of all characteristics must be made. 3. Experts determine which characteristics are valuable for drawing a conclusion about authenticity and authorship of questioned document
answer
Three steps in analyzing a sample
question
-Doesn't necessarily guarantee common authorship -Because it is possible that unique characteristics of a persons handwriting may occur in another's handwriting
answer
Similarities
question
-When a person has tried to disguise their handwriting or copy someone else's handwriting
answer
Conscious writing effort
question
1. A suspect should not be shown the questioned document 2.a suspect should not be given any instructions about punctuation or spelling 3. The pen and paper should be similar to that of the questioned document
answer
To minimize conscious writing effort
question
-Are done with: -handheld lens -naked eye -microscope
answer
Initial comparisons
question
-can determine if more than one kind of ink was used on a document - this is because of the way that different inks may absorb or reflect different wavelengths of light such as infrared
answer
Infrared spectroscope
question
-designed for identity authentification -computerized pad recognizes signature based on speed, pressure, and rhythm of signing your name -forgeries can be detected by slight differences detected by the pad
answer
Biometric pad
question
-has advantage of being faster and more objective than analysis by an individual
answer
Computerized analysis
question
-computerized handwriting database used and maintained by the Secret Service -investigators scan in handwritten documents for a comparitive analysis, once sample is scanned it can be compared to other existing handwriting in the database -this system has verified that no two writers pen their words exactly the same nor do they have the same combination of handwriting characteristics
answer
Forensic Information System for Handwriting
question
-expert handwriting witness must prepare a written report of analysis to present to a jury -indicates how comparisons were made and how it indicates suspects guilt or innocence -validates comparisons by showing jury similarities or dissimilarities that led to final conclusion
answer
Courtroom
question
1. Quality of standards obtained often determines the quality of a comparison analysis, and good standards may be difficult to obtain 2. the effects of mood,age,drugs,fatigue, and illness on a persons handwriting
answer
Limitations of handwriting analysis
question
-establishment that offers programs that certify the training of document analysis
answer
American Board of Forensic Document Examiners
question
Include: -checks -employment records -legal agreements - licenses -wills
answer
Forged documents
question
-when material gain such as money accompanies a forgery
answer
Fraudulence
question
-Americans write more than 70 billion checks a year -approximately 27 million in illegitimate checks are cashed each day
answer
Check forgery
question
-ordering someone else's checks from a deposit slip -directly altering a check -intercepting someone's check, altering it, and cashing it -creating forged checks from scratch
answer
Ways checks can be altered
question
-print checks on chemically sensitive paper -use a large font size that requires more ink and makes alterations more difficult -use high resolution borders on checks that are difficult to copy -print checks in multiple color patterns -embed fibers in checks that glow under different types of lights -use chemical-wash detection systems that change color when a check is altered
answer
Methods to prevent check forgery
question
Refers to forgery of a piece of writing, such as a historic letter or a manuscript
answer
Literary forgery
question
-use old paper from old books in their forgeries -mix their own inks from material that would have been used at a certain time -Documents are sometimes chemically treated to make them look older -Chemicals may be added to the paper to age both the paper and the ink
answer
Good literary forgers
question
-mark Hoffman -master forger -created several hundred forged documents including 116 Mormon pages
answer
1980s
question
-when false documents or other items are copied for the purpose of deception this is known as counterfeiting -is a federal Felony punishable with up to 15 years in prison -The U.S Secret Service is the federal agency in charge of investigating counterfeit currency.
answer
Counterfeiting
question
-travelers checks -certain bonds -currency -food stamps -postage stamps -paper money
answer
Counterfeited items
question
-has built in security features so it can't be scanned and reproduced easily
answer
Money
question
-feels different because real money is printed on special paper -paper is number ONE security feature of money
answer
Counterfeit money
question
-counterfeit pens contain the element iodine , when they come in contact with a counterfeit bill the paper marked with the pen will change to a bluish black color -the color change is caused by a chemical reaction involving starch -REAL CURRENCY DOES NOT CONTAIN STARCH - when real money is marked a pale yellow stain is formed which fades away shortly after
answer
Detecting counterfeit currency
question
-claim counterfeit pen is 98% effective -however U.S government doesn't concede with this level of effectiveness and uses additional criteria for judging whether currency is counterfeit -furthermore there is currently a global movement to change to polymer money, a type of plastic money
answer
Pen manufacturers
question
Include: -handwriting -computer printouts -commercial printing -paper + ink -threatening, ransom, or suicide notes
answer
Field investigations
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question
Examination and comparison of questioned documents with known material
answer
Document analysis
question
-any signature, handwriting, typewriting,or other written mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute
answer
Questioned document
question
-specially trained person who scientifically analyzes handwriting and other features in a document -May be called to crime-scene area or lab to examine the handwriting of ransom notes , threatening notes, or suicide notes
answer
Document expert
question
-analyze and compare various traits such as the appearance of letters of suspicious documents with known samples to help identify author of the document -May also be asked to detect changes that may have occurred in an original document
answer
Investigators
question
-differs from a document expert -studies the personality of the writer based on handwriting samples -the study of graphology is not necessarily accepted as part of forensic science but is possible indicator of writer's personality type
answer
Graphologist
question
-individual evidence because it is unique and personalized -since handwriting is difficult to disguise and forge, handwriting analysis is a good tool for including or excluding persons when determining a match between exemplars and questioned documents
answer
Handwriting
question
-Handwriting analysis played important forensic role during the trial of Bruno Richard Hauptmann -handwriting analysis of the many ransom notes, along with known handwriting samples and other evidence led to conviction -today his involvement is questioned because of manner in which samples were collected and how evidence was handled
answer
1930s
question
-U.S Court of Appeals determined that handwriting analysis qualified as a form of expert testimony -handwriting evidence became admissible in court provided that scientifically accepted guidelines are followed
answer
1999
question
-Scotland Yard -the F.B.I -the Secret Service -these companies use handwriting analysis in solving important cases
answer
Use Handwriting analysis
question
-occurs in everyone's handwriting depending on several factors Factors include: -different types of writing instruments -mood -age -whether individual is hurried or not
answer
Natural variations
question
-each person has a unique handwriting style -brain does the writing -adults show slight variation in handwriting because they've learned to write through basically same method -once a person starts writing subconsciously with characters formed as a result of habit, unique handwriting is formed
answer
Handwriting style
question
Twelve major characteristics are....
answer
Functions of letter form, line form, and formatting
question
Includes: -shape of letters -curve of letters -angle or slant of letters -proportional size of letters -use and appearance of connecting lines between letters -whether "t"'s crossed or "i"'a dotted
answer
Letter form
question
Includes: -smoothness of letters -darkness of lines in the upward compared to the downward stroke -line form is influenced by the speed of writing and pressure exerted while writing -choice of instrument can also influence line form
answer
Line form
question
Includes: -spacing between letters -spacing between words and lines -placement of words on a line -margins a writer leaves empty on a page
answer
Formatting
question
-do the letters flow or are they erratic or shaky?
answer
Line quality
question
-are letters equally spaced or crowded?
answer
Spacing
question
-is the ratio of height to width consistent ?
answer
Size consistency
question
-is the writing continuous or does the writer lift the pen?
answer
Continuous
question
-are capitals and lowercase letters connected and continuous ?
answer
Connecting letters
question
-are letters completely formed ? -or is a part of the letter missing ?
answer
Letters complete
question
-are there printed letters, cursive letters, or both?
answer
Cursive and printed letters
question
-is pressure equal when applied to upward and downward strokes?
answer
Pen pressure
question
Left, right , or variable ?
answer
Slant
question
-is the text on the line , above the line, or below the line ?
answer
Line habits
question
-are there fancy curls or loops ?
answer
Fancy curls or loops
question
Correct or misplaced ? Where are t's crossed ? Top ? Middle ? Bottom ? Are I's dotted ?
answer
Placement of crosses on "t"s and dots on "i"s
question
.....is to answer questions about a suspicious document and determine authorship using a variety of scientific methods
answer
Goal of forensic handwriting analysis
question
-based on principle of identification that two writings are the product of one person if the similarities are unique and there are no fundamental unexplainable differences
answer
Methods
question
-documents made, adapted, or falsified with the intention of deceiving someone
answer
Forgeries
question
1. The questioned document and the standards(exemplars) are examined and detectable characteristics are recorded 2. Characteristics of the questioned item are compared with the known standard. For samples similar to questionable document thorough analysis of all characteristics must be made. 3. Experts determine which characteristics are valuable for drawing a conclusion about authenticity and authorship of questioned document
answer
Three steps in analyzing a sample
question
-Doesn't necessarily guarantee common authorship -Because it is possible that unique characteristics of a persons handwriting may occur in another's handwriting
answer
Similarities
question
-When a person has tried to disguise their handwriting or copy someone else's handwriting
answer
Conscious writing effort
question
1. A suspect should not be shown the questioned document 2.a suspect should not be given any instructions about punctuation or spelling 3. The pen and paper should be similar to that of the questioned document
answer
To minimize conscious writing effort
question
-Are done with: -handheld lens -naked eye -microscope
answer
Initial comparisons
question
-can determine if more than one kind of ink was used on a document - this is because of the way that different inks may absorb or reflect different wavelengths of light such as infrared
answer
Infrared spectroscope
question
-designed for identity authentification -computerized pad recognizes signature based on speed, pressure, and rhythm of signing your name -forgeries can be detected by slight differences detected by the pad
answer
Biometric pad
question
-has advantage of being faster and more objective than analysis by an individual
answer
Computerized analysis
question
-computerized handwriting database used and maintained by the Secret Service -investigators scan in handwritten documents for a comparitive analysis, once sample is scanned it can be compared to other existing handwriting in the database -this system has verified that no two writers pen their words exactly the same nor do they have the same combination of handwriting characteristics
answer
Forensic Information System for Handwriting
question
-expert handwriting witness must prepare a written report of analysis to present to a jury -indicates how comparisons were made and how it indicates suspects guilt or innocence -validates comparisons by showing jury similarities or dissimilarities that led to final conclusion
answer
Courtroom
question
1. Quality of standards obtained often determines the quality of a comparison analysis, and good standards may be difficult to obtain 2. the effects of mood,age,drugs,fatigue, and illness on a persons handwriting
answer
Limitations of handwriting analysis
question
-establishment that offers programs that certify the training of document analysis
answer
American Board of Forensic Document Examiners
question
Include: -checks -employment records -legal agreements - licenses -wills
answer
Forged documents
question
-when material gain such as money accompanies a forgery
answer
Fraudulence
question
-Americans write more than 70 billion checks a year -approximately 27 million in illegitimate checks are cashed each day
answer
Check forgery
question
-ordering someone else's checks from a deposit slip -directly altering a check -intercepting someone's check, altering it, and cashing it -creating forged checks from scratch
answer
Ways checks can be altered
question
-print checks on chemically sensitive paper -use a large font size that requires more ink and makes alterations more difficult -use high resolution borders on checks that are difficult to copy -print checks in multiple color patterns -embed fibers in checks that glow under different types of lights -use chemical-wash detection systems that change color when a check is altered
answer
Methods to prevent check forgery
question
Refers to forgery of a piece of writing, such as a historic letter or a manuscript
answer
Literary forgery
question
-use old paper from old books in their forgeries -mix their own inks from material that would have been used at a certain time -Documents are sometimes chemically treated to make them look older -Chemicals may be added to the paper to age both the paper and the ink
answer
Good literary forgers
question
-mark Hoffman -master forger -created several hundred forged documents including 116 Mormon pages
answer
1980s
question
-when false documents or other items are copied for the purpose of deception this is known as counterfeiting -is a federal Felony punishable with up to 15 years in prison -The U.S Secret Service is the federal agency in charge of investigating counterfeit currency.
answer
Counterfeiting
question
-travelers checks -certain bonds -currency -food stamps -postage stamps -paper money
answer
Counterfeited items
question
-has built in security features so it can't be scanned and reproduced easily
answer
Money
question
-feels different because real money is printed on special paper -paper is number ONE security feature of money
answer
Counterfeit money
question
-counterfeit pens contain the element iodine , when they come in contact with a counterfeit bill the paper marked with the pen will change to a bluish black color -the color change is caused by a chemical reaction involving starch -REAL CURRENCY DOES NOT CONTAIN STARCH - when real money is marked a pale yellow stain is formed which fades away shortly after
answer
Detecting counterfeit currency
question
-claim counterfeit pen is 98% effective -however U.S government doesn't concede with this level of effectiveness and uses additional criteria for judging whether currency is counterfeit -furthermore there is currently a global movement to change to polymer money, a type of plastic money
answer
Pen manufacturers
question
Include: -handwriting -computer printouts -commercial printing -paper + ink -threatening, ransom, or suicide notes
answer
Field investigations