Forensic Odontology

Odontology
The science dealing with the teeth, their structure, development, and their diseases

Forensic Odontology
-forensic medicine that deals with teeth and marks left by teeth (identifying criminal or remains of deceased person)
-proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be presented for the intent of justice
-commonly called Forensic dentistry- dentists who specialize

Forensic Odontology
-application of dentistry to human identification
-the identification based on dentition, common in cases of unrecognizable bodies and mass disasters
-analyze and compare bite mark evidence

Training
-dental training
-licensed dentist
-special classes and seminars
-Forensic Odontology certification from American Academy of Forensic Science
-participate in approx 25 cases before being board certified

History of F.O.
-dentition identification dates back to 66 AD
-Agrippina identified rivals, Lollia, decapitated head by a distinctive discolored front tooth

Paul Revere – First Forensic Dentist
-Revere identified friends body (Warren) who was burried for 10 months by a false tooth he put in with specific wiring.

John White Webster Case
-first murder conviction based on dental evidence in 1850
-dentist recognized denture that were made for the victim

Doyle vs State (Texas 1954)
-First published account w/ conviction based on bite marks
-bite mark was on a piece of cheese left at crime scene

Roll of Forensic Odontology
-Victim Identification
-Mass Disasters
-Bite mark evidence
-Child Abuse
-Civil litigation (personal injury, malpractice, dental fraud)

Dental Identification
-comparison of missing persons dental records, models,and xrays w/ the dental evidence from unknown remains. Known as one of the most reliable mean of positive identification.

Dental Charts & X-Rays
-premortem x-rays and dental charts are marked for any major construction
-features are also marked on postmortem x-rays and charts
-comparisons of the 2 are done for identification

Bite Marks
-bite marks can be used to identify perpetrators
-photographic study and image enhancement w/ comparative study may exclude or positively a suspect
-most often seen in rape, murder, child abuse, spousal abuse

Types of Bite Marks
-Bruise or Rub
-Sucking (hicky)
-Laceration
-Avulsion of Tissue
-Single Tooth Imprint

Problems of Bite Mark Analysis
-skin factors
-distortion
-variability of biting force, movement
-reproduction of patterns
-uniqueness of dentition

Class Patterns of Tooth Types
-Incisors- rectangles
-Canines- Single or dual triangles, diamonds, with some variations
-Molars- Rarely leave marks, but when reflect the shape of marking area

ABFO #2 Photomacrographic Scale
-standard bite mark measurement and photograpjy

Locations of bite marks
-Sexual Assault; Females=breast, nipples, thighs, butt, and pubis males=back, shoulders, butt and penis
-Defense woulds; forearms, hands

Time of Death
-antemortem bite marks create a great deal of bruising
-agonal or perimortem bite marks create a bruising pattern that is well defined
-postmortem bite marks have well defined dentition but no bruising

Diagnostic Casts
-accurate replication of the atomic form of the maxillary or mandibular dental arch showing the relationships of teeth and surrounding tissues
-a supplement to the oral examination, but can reveal more

Nomenclature
-Primary (deciduous)-20 teeth(8incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars)
-Permanent (adult)- 32 teeth
-Maxillary (upper)
-Mandibular (lower)

Surfaces
-Facial – outside (visible)
-buccal- cheek (posterior) -labial- lips (anterior)
-Lingual- inside (tongue/palate)
-Mesial- front (midline)
-Distal- back of mouth
-Occlusal- top/chewing (posterior)
-Incisal- anterior

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