First Form Latin Grammar Questions 1-106 Review

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Give the five vowel letters and their long sounds in Latin.
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a /ah/, e /ay/, i /ee/, o /oh/, u /oo/ (food)
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Give two Latin words that have the long sound of the five vowels.
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Gloria, Jesus
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Always in Latin and usually in English c, g, and sc are soft before
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e, i, ae and oe.
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Always in Latin and usually in English c, g and sc are hard before
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a, o, u, consonants.
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In Latin and English hard c has the sound of
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/k/.
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Soft c has the sound of /s/ in English and
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/ch/ in Latin.
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In Latin, gn is pronounced like
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/ny/ Examples: pugno, magnus
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Give the names, from left to right, of the last three syllables of a Latin word.
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antepenult, penult, ultima
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The accent is on the penult unless
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the antepenult is marked.
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Verb families are called
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conjugations.
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How many conjugations are there? Name them.
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Four 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
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Give the six attributes of a Latin verb.
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Conjugation, person, number, tense, voice and mood.
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Give the three grammar persons.
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First person, second person, third person.
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The first person is the person
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speaking.
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The second person is the person
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spoken to.
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The third person is the person
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spoken about.
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Give the two grammar numbers.
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Singular, plural.
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How many Latin tenses are there? Name them.
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six – present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect
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The stem vowel of the 1st conjugation is
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a
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Give the names for the three forms of the English present tense.
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simple present, progressive present, emphatic present
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In English “I praise” is the ________________ present.
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simple
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In English “I am praising” is the _____________ present.
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progressive
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In English “I do praise” is the _____________ present.
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emphatic
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In Latin “imperfect” means:
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not finished.
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The imperfect tense sign is:
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ba.
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The imperfect tense is used to describe an
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ongoing, repeated, habitual or interrupted action.
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What English helping verbs translate the imperfect tense?
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were, was
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The two basic parts of a sentence are
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the subject and predicate.
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The subject is
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who or what the sentence is about.
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The predicate tells
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what the subject is or does.
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What is Sentence Pattern 1?
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subject + verb
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What English helping verb translates the Latin future tense?
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will
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The three tenses that make up the Present System are:
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present, imperfect, future.
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The Present System is built on the
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present system.
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What are the principal parts of a verb? How many are there?
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The forms that provide the stems needed to conjugate a verb in all its tenses. There are usually 4 principal parts of a verb.
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What is the name of the 2nd principal part?
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infinitive
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The infinitive ending for all 1st conjugation verbs is
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are.
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How do you find the present stem?
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Drop -re from the infinitive.
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The English infinitive is written with the particle ____ before the verb.
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to
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The “to be” verb shows
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existence, not action.
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Give the English forms of the “to be” verb.
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am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
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Give the regular endings for the principal parts of 1st conjugation verbs.
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-o, -are, -avi, -atus
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What is Sentence Pattern 2?
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Subject + verb + direct object
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Something that completes the action of the verb is a
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complement.
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What is the first complement in this text?
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the complementary infinitive
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In Latin grammar perfect means
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finished.
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The perfect tense describes what kind of action?
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a one-time action completed in the past.
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The perfect tense is built on the
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perfect stem.
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How do you find the perfect stem?
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Drop i from the third principal part.
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Give three translations for vocavi.
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I called, I have called, I did call
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What English helping verbs translate the perfect tense?
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have, has, did
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The pluperfect tense is built on the
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perfect stem.
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The pluperfect tense describes what kind of action?
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A past action completed prior to another past action.
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What English helping verb translates the pluperfect tense?
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had
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The pluperfect tense endings are identical to
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the imperfect tense of sum.
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The future perfect tense is built on the
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perfect stem.
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The future perfect tense describes
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an action in the future completed prior to another action in the future.
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What English helping verbs translate the future perfect tense?
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will have
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The future perfect tense endings are identical to
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the future tense of sum except for 3rd person plural.
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The tenses of the Perfect System are
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perfect,pluperfect,future perfect
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They are built on the
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perfect stem.
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Verb families are called
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conjugations
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Noun families are called
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declensions
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How many declensions are there? Name them.
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Five: 1st,2nd,3rd,4th,5th
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Give the four attributes of nouns.
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declension,gender,number and case
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The three genders are
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masculine,feminine,neuter
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Nouns that name male or female persons or animals have
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natural gender.
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Give three English examples.
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sister,brother,father,queen,king,uncle, etc.
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Nouns that name non-living things have
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grammatical gender.
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To what does the case of a noun refer?
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The job of a noun in a sentence.
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Name the cases in order.
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nominative,genitive,dative,accusative,ablative
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What is the subject case?
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nominative
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What is the direct object case?
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accusative
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What is the indirect object case?
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dative
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What is the possessive case?
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genitive
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What is the in/by/with/from case?
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ablative
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What is the to/for case?
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dative
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What is the of case?
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genitive
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The genitive singular of a 1st declension noun always end in
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ae
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1st declension nouns are usually what gender?
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feminine
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Three important exceptions to the 1st declension feminine rule are
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poeta,nauta,agricola
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Latin does not have the English articles
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a,an,the
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Give three translations for the Latin noun mensa.
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table,a table, the table
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The genitive singular of a 2nd declension noun always ends in
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i
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Second declension us nouns are usually
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masculine in gender.
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Name the two subgroups of the 2nd declension, and give their gender.
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1. us nouns with masculine gender 2.um nouns with neuter gender
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Verbs have
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tense,personal endings.
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Nouns have
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case endings.
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Second declension um nouns are always
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neuter in gender.
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The declension a noun belongs to is determined by the
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genitive singular
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The natural gender rule
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trumps all other gender rules.
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What is the neuter rule?
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nominative and accusative endings are the same, nominative and accusative plural ending is -a .
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The subject and verb must agree in
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person and number.
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What is an adjective?
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An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.
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In Latin an adjective must agree with its noun in
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gender,number,case but not declension.
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Usually an adjective of quantity
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precedes a noun.
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An adjective of quality
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follows the noun.
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Counting numbers are called
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cardinal
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Numbers which indicate the order of things in a series are called
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ordinal
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What is Sentence Pattern #3?
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subject + linking verb + predicate adjective
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What is Sentence Pattern #4?
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subject + linking verb + predicate nominative
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The genitive singular of a 3rd declension noun always end in
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-is
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How can you know the gender of a 3rd declension noun?
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You have to memorize it.
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Masculine and Feminine nouns of a 3rd declension have
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the same case endings.
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How do you find the stem of a Latin noun?
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Drop the genitive singular ending.
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The usual word order for an English sentence is
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subject-verb-direct object
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How many of the seven basic sentence patterns have complements?
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six
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What are the three complements covered in this text?
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direct object, predicate adjective, predicate nominative
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What are the two kinds of direct objects covered in this text?
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complementary infinitive and direct objective in the accusative case.
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The usual word order for a Latin sentence is
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subject-direct object-verb
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What kind of verb is never allowed by a direct object?
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The verb sum, the to be verb
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The genitive singular of the 4th declension always ends in
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us
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Fourth declension nouns are usually
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masculine gender
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Two common exceptions are
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domus and manus
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The genitive singular of the 5th declension is
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ei
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Most 5th declension nouns are usually
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feminine gender
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One common exception is
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dies
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The stem vowel of the 2nd Conjugation is
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Ä“
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The infinitive ending for all the 2nd conjugation verbs are
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eo, Ä“re, ui, itus
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Draw the gender triangle.
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