First Aid chapter 19

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almost 80% of animal bites
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dogs are responsible
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dog bites yearly
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5 million
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bite deaths yearly in US
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19
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2 results from animal bite
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tissue damage & infection
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2 examples of dog bite infections
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tetanus and rabies
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Why are cat bites more infectious?
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sharp teeth create deep puncture wounds
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ferrets can cause
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severe facial injuries to children
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wild or stray dogs
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rarely involved in fatal attacks
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rabies
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a virus in warm-blooded animals, spread through saliva
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significant rabies exposure if
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bite or scratch penetrates the skin
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unprovoked attacks
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more likely from rabid animal
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possibly rabid 1
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unprovoked attack
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possibly rabid 2
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animal acted strangely, out of character
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possibly rabid 3
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a high risk species (skunk, raccoon, bat)
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highest # of deaths per year in the US from animals
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48.5 hornet, bee, wasp 18.9 dogs
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report animal bites
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to police or animal control
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recognizing animal bites 1
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puncture wound
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recognizing animal bites 2
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tissue or skin can be crushed
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recognizing animal bites 3
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open wound on fingers, knuckles and/or hand
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1st care for animal bites
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if wound not bleeding heavily, wash with soap and water flush with faucet water
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2nd care for animal bites
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control bleeding with direct pressure
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3rd care for animal bites
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cover wound with sterile or clean dressing. Do not close the wound
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4th care for animal bites
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seek medical care
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do not try to
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capture the animal yourself
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do not get
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near the animal
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do not, unless absolutely necessary
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kill the animal
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human bites
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can cause severe injury
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most human bites
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fighting youths, peeps in mental institutions, sexual assaults, children at play
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high risk for infection from a human bite because
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embarrassment causes them to not seek medical care
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accidental or sports related human bites
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25%
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1st type of human bite
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true bite
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What is a true bite?
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body’s flesh deliberately caught between teeth
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2nd type of human bite
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clenched fist injury
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Is a clenched fist injury or true bite much worse?
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a clenched fist injury because high rate of infection
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1st care for human bites
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if not bleeding heavily, wash with soap and water for 5-10 minutes
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2nd care for human bites
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flush wound with running faucet water
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3rd care for human bites
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control bleeding with direct pressure
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4th care for human bites
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cover the wound with sterile dressing. Do not close the wound
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5th care for human bites
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seek medical care for further cleaning and tetnus shot
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How many peeps die worldwide from snake bites each year?
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50,000
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In the US, how many peeps bitten each year by snakes?
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40,000 – 50,000
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venomous snake bites each year in the US
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7,000 – 8,000
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How many peeps in US die from snake bites yearly?
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less than a dozen
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4 venomous snakes in the US
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rattlesnake, copperheads, water moccasins, coral snakes
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snake bites can be
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painful, costly, potentially deadly
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venomous viper snake characteristics
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fangs, elliptical pupil, triangle-shaped head, heat sensitive pit b/w eye and nostril
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coral snake
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red, yellow and black bands, every other band is yellow
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coral snakes are found
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in Arizona, southeastern US and Texas
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a legitimate snake bite
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bitten before the encounter was recognized
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an illegitimate snake bite
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victim recognized the encounter but did not attempt to move away
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pit vipers are found
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in every state but Alaska, Maine, Hawaii
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to reduce severity of snake bites
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wear jeans
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What percentage of snake bites are on the extremities?
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98
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eastern and western diamondback rattlesnakes
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account for 95% of deaths in US
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sign of pit viper bite 1
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severe burning pain at the bite site
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sign of pit viper bite 2
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two small puncture wounds about 1/2 inch apart
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sign of pit viper bite 3
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swelling within 10-15 minutes
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sign of pit viper bite 4
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discoloration after 2-3 hours, blood-filled blisters in 6-10 hours
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sign of pit viper bite 5
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nausea, vomiting, sweating, weakness
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sign of pit viper bite 6
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in 25% of bites, there is no venom injected
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1st care for pit viper bites
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get victim and bystanders away from the snake
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2nd care for pit viper bites
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do not attempt to capture or kill the snake
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3rd care for pit viper bites
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keep the victim quiet, activity increases venom absorption carry victim or have them walk slowly
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4th care for pit viper bites
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gently wash with soap and water, jewelry reducing blood flow should be removed
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5th care for pit viper bites
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stabilize the bitten area with a splint or sling, keep extremity below heart level
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6th care for pit viper bites
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seek medical care immediately. Antivenom must be given within 4 hours. This is the most important thing to do!
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for a snake bite, do not 1
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apply cold or ice
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for a snake bite, do not 2
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use the cut and suck procedure
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for a snake bite, do not 3
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apply mouth suction
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for a snake bite, do not 4
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use any form of suction
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for a snake bite, do not 5
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apply electric shock
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for a snake bite, do not 6
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apply a constriction bandage
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dead snakes
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can still bite
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America’s most venomous snake that rarely bites people
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coral snake
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recognizing coral snake bites 1
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minimal pain
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recognizing coral snake bites 2
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sagging or drooping of upper eyelids
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recognizing coral snake bites 3
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weakness
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recognizing coral snake bites 4
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prickling, tingling of skin
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recognizing coral snake bites 5
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double vision
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recognizing coral snake bites 6
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difficulty swallowing
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recognizing coral snake bites 7
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sweating
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recognizing coral snake bites 8
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abnormal flow of saliva
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1st care for coral snake bites
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keep victim calm
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2nd care for coral snake bites
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gently clean with soap and water
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3rd care for coral snake bites
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apply mild pressure by wrapping several elastic bandages over the bite site and entire arm or leg
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Why should mild pressure be applied for a coral snake bite?
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pressure holds venom at bite site, it limits the pumping action of the muscles
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4th care for coral snake bites
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seek medical care. Antivenom or coral snakes is no longer produced in the US
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nonvenomous snakes inflict
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the most snake bites
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recognizing nonvenomous snake bites 1
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feeling of a mild to moderate pinch
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recognizing nonvenomous snake bites 2
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curved lines of tiny pinpricks on the skin
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recognizing nonvenomous snake bites 3
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bleeding
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recognizing nonvenomous snake bites 4
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mild itching
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1st care for nonvenomous snake bites
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gently clean with soap and water
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2nd care for nonvenomous snake bites
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care for the bite as you would a minor wound
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3rd care for nonvenomous snake bites
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seek medical care
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insect stings
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account for more deaths and illnesses than all other venomous animals combined
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hymenoptera venom
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1 in 200 dangerously allergic
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most common consequences of an insect bite
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localized pain, itching, swelling
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honeybees and bumblebees do not
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release all their venom during the first injection
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honeybees and some yellow jackets
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have barbed stingers
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wasps, yellow jackets, hornets and fire ants
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do not have barbed stingers, they do not stay embedded in victim
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Who can sting multiple times?
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wasps, hornets, fire ants, some yellow jackets
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2 types of yellow jackets
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wasp, ground-nesting bee
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a wasp can
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sting multiple times
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a ground-nesting bee
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stings, then dies
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most stings cause
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pain, itching, redness, swelling in local area
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an extensive sting reaction
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swelling and redness peaks 2-3 days later and last a week or longer
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signs of life-threatening sting reactions
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nausea, vomiting, wheezing, fever, dripping nose
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deaths from flying insect stings
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respiratory tract obstruction
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most people who have an anaphylactic shock
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have no history of them (85%)
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for the severely allergic person
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a single sting could be fatal within minutes
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killer bees
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no more potent, just more aggressive
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recognizing insect stings 1
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instant pain, redness, itching
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recognizing insect stings 2
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worrisome reactions include hives, swelling of lips, tongue, tickle in the throat, wheezing
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recognizing insect stings 3
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life threatening include bluish or grayish skin colors, seizures, unresponsiveness, inability to breathe
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60-80% of anaphylactic deaths
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victim not being able to breathe
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fire ants
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use an abdominal stinger
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a difficulty in dealing with stings
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lack of uniformity in victims’ responses
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stings to the mouth or eye
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more dangerous than other areas
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the most dangerous sting
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inside the throat
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sting in the mouth or throat is not life threatening
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have victim suck on ice or flush mouth with cold water bee sting dissolve teaspoon of baking soda in glass of water
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1st care for insect stings
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wear medic-alert bracelet if allergic to insect stings
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2nd care for insect stings
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look for stinger and venom sac embedded in the skin remove asap by any method
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3rd care for insect stings
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wash with soap and water
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4th care for insect stings
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apply ice pack over sting site if bee sting, use a baking soda paste if wasp sting,apply vinegar or lemon juice
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5th care for insect stings
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to relieve pain and itching, use aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen for adults
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6th care for insect stings
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observe victim for at least 30 minutes for signs of allergic reaction
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for an allergic reaction
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dose of epinephrine is the only effective treatment
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if the victim is allergic
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seek medical care immediately, keep stung part lower than the heart, use epinephrine kit if possible, check breathing
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if anaphylaxis returns
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another dose of epinephrine every 15 min may be needed
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7th care for insect stings
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do not use epinephrine unless victim has a severe allergic reaction
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8th care for insect stings
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watch for signs of a delayed reaction, especially the first 6 to 24 hours
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death from spider bites
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only from brown recluse and black widows
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most potent venoms
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from black widow spiders
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recognizing black widow spider bites 1
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if spider is trapped against the skin, or crushed it will bite
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recognizing black widow spider bites 2
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may feel a sharp pinprick, within 15 min, a dull, numbing pain develops
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recognizing black widow spider bites 3
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two small fang marks may be seen as tiny red spots
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recognizing black widow spider bites 4
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within 15 min to 4 hrs, muscle stiffness and cramps occur, and severe pain
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recognizing black widow spider bites 5
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headache, fever, chills, heavy sweating, dizziness, and vomiting occur next
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1st care for black widow spider bites
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catch spider if possible, take with victim to the hospital
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2nd care for black widow spider bites
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clean bite area with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
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3rd care for black widow spider bites
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place ice pack over the bite to relieve pain and delay venom effects
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4th care for black widow spider bites
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give adults aspirin, ibuprofen or acetaminophren
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5th care for black widow spider bites
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monitor breathing
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6th care for black widow spider bites
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seek medical care asap, an antivenom exists
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recognizing brown recluse spider bites 1
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bites only when trapped against the skin
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recognizing brown recluse spider bites 2
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local reaction occurs within 2-8 hours, mild to severe pain, redness, swelling, local itching
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recognizing brown recluse spider bites 3
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48-72 hours later, blistering develops, becomes red, then bursts, bull’s eye appearance
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recognizing brown recluse spider bites 4
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fever, weakness, vomiting, joint pain, and rash can occur
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recognizing brown recluse spider bites 5
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stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting may occur. death is rare
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1st care for brown recluse spider bites
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catch spider, bring with victim to hospital
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2nd care for brown recluse spider bites
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clean bite area with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
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3rd care for brown recluse spider bites
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place ice pack over the bite area
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4th care for brown recluse spider bites
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give adult aspirin, ibuprofen or acetaminophen
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5th care for brown recluse spider bites
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seek medical care immediately
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recognizing tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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aching or stinging pain, hairs cause itching or inflammation that lasts several weeks
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1st care for tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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catch spider, take with victim to the hospital
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2nd care for tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
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3rd care for tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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place ice pack over bite area
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4th care for tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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give adult aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen
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5th care for tarantula bites and embedded hairs
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seek medical care immediately
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1st care for embedded tarantula hair
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remove hair with sticky tape, repeat as necessary
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2nd care for embedded tarantula hair
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wash with soap and water
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3rd care for embedded tarantula hair
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apply hydrocortisone cream
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4th care for embedded tarantula hair
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give pain medication, aspirin for adults or ibuprofen or acetaminophren
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5th care for embedded tarantula hair
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give victim an antihistamine
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recognizing common aggressive house spider bites
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redness, blisters, gangrene, headaches, visual problems, weakness
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1st care for common aggressive house spider bites
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catch spider, take with victim to the hospital
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2nd care for common aggressive house spider bites
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clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
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3rd care for common aggressive house spider bites
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place ice pack over the bite area
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4th care for common aggressive house spider bites
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give aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophren
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5th care for common aggressive house spider bites
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seek medical care immediately
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only bark scorpion
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poses a threat to humans
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scorpion stings
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could include paralysis, spasms, breathing difficulties
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if child gets scorpion sting
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get to medical care asap, make sure airway is open and they are breathing
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recognizing scorpion stings 1
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local immediate pain and burning around sting site
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recognizing scorpion stings 2
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numbness or tingling later on
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recognizing scorpion stings 3
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pain in the arm or leg and paralysis
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recognizing scorpion stings 4
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uncontrolled jerking movements of legs or arms and facial twitching
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1st care for scorpion stings
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monitor breathing
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2nd care for scorpion stings
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gently clean the sting site with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
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3rd care for scorpion stings
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apply an ice pack
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4th care for scorpion stings
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give (adults only) aspirin, ibuprofen or acetaminophen
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5th care for scorpion stings
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seek medical care
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only US centipede dangerous to humans
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giant desert centipede
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centipedes inject toxic substances
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from a pair of hollow jaws that act like fangs
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recognizing centipede bites 1
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burning and local inflammation, mild swelling of the lymph nodes lasting 4-12 hrs. swelling and tenderness can last 3 weeks, and come and go
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1st care for centipede bites
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clean with soap and water
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2nd care for centipede bites
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apply an ice pack
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3rd care for centipede bites
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give aspirin, ibuprofen or acetaminophen
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4th care for centipede bites
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seek medical care for severe reactions
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in the US, mosquitoes carry
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encephalitis
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1st care for mosquito bites
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wash with soap and water
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2nd care for mosquito bites
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apply an ice pack
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3rd care for mosquito bites
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apply calamine lotion or hydocortisone ointment to decrease redness and itching
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4th care for mosquito bites
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for victim with lots of bites or allergic reaction, antihistamine every 6 hrs or physician-prescribed cortisone
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ticks are close relatives of
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mites and spiders
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1st care for embedded ticks
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remove them asap with tweezers or tick removal tool
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2nd care for embedded ticks
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grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible, then lift with just enough force to tent the skin, hold until the tick lets go, (about 1 min) then pull the tick away from the skin
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after the tick has been removed
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wash with soap and water, apply rubbing alcohol, then an ice pack, apply calamine lotion, watch for 1 month for rash
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if tick was not effectively pulled out gently
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seek medical care for removal, watch for signs of infection 3-30 days later, seek medical care
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the knot method
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can be used to remove a tick is tweezers or tick removal tool are unavailable
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do not remove a tick using these methods
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using petroleum jelly, fingernail polish, rubbing alcohol, a hot match, gasoline, grab the rear of its body, twist or jerk
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lyme disease is caused by
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deer ticks
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most shark attacks occur
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within 100 feet of shore
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recognizing a shark bite
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severe bleeding, large open wounds, abrasions
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care for shark bites
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control bleeding, treat for shock, seek medical care
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first aid for barracuda bite
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same as aid for shark bite
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recognizing barracuda and moray eel bites 1
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barracuda lacerations similar to those of a shark
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recognizing barracuda and moray eel bites 2
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eel bites involve severe, multiple puncture wounds
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1st care for barracuda and moray eel bites
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flush with water under pressure
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2nd care for barracuda and moray eel bites
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control bleeding
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nematocysts
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stinging devices of jellyfish and Portuguese man-of-wars
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Portuguese man-of-war sting
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linear welts or scattered patches of welts with redness, usually disappear within 24 hrs
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jellyfish sting
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severe muscle cramping, thin lines of welts in a zigzag pattern, burning pain lasting 10-30 min
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jellyfish sting welts
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usually disappear within an hour
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anemone stings
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result from improper handling
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recognizing marine stings 1
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stinging
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recognizing marine stings 2
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severe itching, burning
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recognizing marine stings 3
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prickling, tingling
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recognizing marine stings 4
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blisters
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recognizing marine stings 5
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severe allergic reactions
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recognizing marine stings 6
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difficulty breathing
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recognizing marine stings 7
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muscle cramping
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recognizing marine stings 8
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nausea, vomiting
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1st care for marine stings
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apply vinegar to the sting area for at least 30 seconds or baking soda paste
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2nd care for marine stings
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use hot water immersion for at least 20 min to reduce pain
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3rd care for marine stings
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apply hydrocortisone (1%) several times a day
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do not try to rub
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the tentacles off the victim’s skin
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do not use
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fresh water for rinsing, causes nematocysts to fire
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do not apply cold packs
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causes nematocysts to fire
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do not touch the tentacles
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with bare hands
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recognizing stingray punctures
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sudden, intense pain, open wound, swelling
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1st care for stingrays
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relieve pain by immersing in hot water for 30-90 min
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2nd care for stingrays
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wash with soap and water
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3rd care for stingrays
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irrigate with water under pressure to remove toxin and foreign material
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4th care for stingrays
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treat wound like any other puncture wound

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