Final Exam Bio Chapter 1

What are the five characteristics of life?
1. Life is highly organized
2. Life needs energy
3. Life maintains internal constancy
4. Life reproduces, grows, and develops
5. Life evolves

Will you be able to arrange these levels organization of life, from smallest (simplest) to largest (most complex)?
Organ System

What is the fundamental difference between a unicellular organism and a multicellular organism?
The difference between a unicellular organism and a multicellular organism is unicellular has one cell while multicellular has many.

What is the smallest unit that can hold life?

Do you know what the meaning of the scientific term “homeostasis” is?
Process by which an organism maintains internal environment “normal” (at equilibrium) even when the surrounding change

What is the most characterized “cause” of evolution?
Natural Selection (survival of the fittest)

How do you define science?
An unbiased intellectual activity, using “objective” investigation into natural phenomena (Natural Phenomena = Measurable natural events around us)

Name four thing that should NOT affect the genuine work of a scientist:
1. Personal Belief
2. Religion
3. Social or financial pressure
4. Myths

What is the first step in the scientific method?
Make observations

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
Hypothesis is a testable, tentative explanation for one or more observing’s/ prior knowledge
Theory is a well supported scientific explanation
The difference is theory is typically broader in scope than hypothesis. Another would be their degree of acceptance, based on evidence. Hypothesis is tentative while theories reflect broader agreement.

What is the value of peer review process in a scientific study?
Scientists independently evaluate the validity of methods, data and conclusions. Insures that published studies meet high standards for quality

What is the purpose of a “control” in a scientific experiment?
Provides a basis for comparison. Allows researchers to eliminate and isolate variables.

Name four features of a good scientific study:
1. Clear objective
2. Valid and repeatable methods
3. Good controls for variable parameters
4. Credible results
5. Logical, unbiased conclusions
6. Repeatability of results

How would you recognize pseudoscience?
Presenting falsified claims to; support personal bias, financial gain or even fame.

Be familiar with the case of Andrew Wakefield’s claim as an example for pseudoscience.
In 1998, Andrew Wakefield published a study in a medical journal that was completely fabricated claims linking MMR vaccine and autism
• No other study could support his claim or repeat his experiments
• In 2010, it was found that almost all his data were fabricated, he was stripped of his medical license
• Why did he fake results? A conflict of interests.

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