federal govt chapter 6

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What did the framers identify as the greatest source of political conflict for the United States?
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differences between the rich and poor
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The famous Lincoln-Douglas debates took place
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outside, in the cornfields and town squares of Illinois.
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_______ ushered in the tax revolt and the deregulation of many government policies in the 1980s.
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Ronald Reagan
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Each of the following organizations has a liberal orientation EXCEPT ________.
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the Chamber of Commerce
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A socialist is someone who believes that
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government should be very active in many spheres in order to reduce economic and social inequality.
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Which of following phenomena is not an illustration of the gender gap?
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Men are more likely to join political parties and other social organizations.
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Which of the following terms describe America’s fundamental political values?
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liberty, equality of opportunity, and democracy
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________ .led the exposure of the Watergate scandal.
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Journalists at the Washington Post
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In public opinion surveys, a sample of the total population
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must be representative in that the views of those in the sample must accurately and proportionately reflect the views of the whole population.
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The small group selected by pollsters to represent the entire population is called the ________.
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sample
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If a person supports a candidate because she or he is the front-runner in a poll, this is an example of ________.
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the bandwagon effect
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Which of the following statements is true?
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The Tea Party movement is more popular in New England than in the South. The Democratic Party is becoming more popular in the South. California is a solid Republican state today. Latino voters may shift the balance of political power in Texas in the next decade. Political elites are not very polarized today.
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Opposition to legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ________ while support for legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ________
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conservatives; liberals
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Which of the following is true of trust in government?
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Republicans have more trust in government than Democrats. Very low trust in government is a reality in contemporary politics. Very high trust in government is a reality in contemporary politics. Americans had more trust in government when George W. Bush was president than during John F. Kennedy’s tenure.
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Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is FALSE?
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An individual’s religion has no impact on their political views.
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Which of the following statements about public opinion is FALSE?
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Shifts in public opinion on particular issues do not lead to changes in public policy.
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________ is the most important core value of liberalism.
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Equality
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The typical margin of error in a sample survey of 1,500 respondents is ________
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2.5 percent
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Research into public opinion and public policy has shown that
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more affluent and more educated citizens have a disproportionate influence over politics and public policy decisions.
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Which of the following was NOT part of the George W. Bush administration’s effort to maintain support for its war on terror?
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donations to academic institutions
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Which statement concerning the news media is FALSE?
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The methods used to report the news help shape the underlying attitudes and opinions of those consuming the news. In a free democracy, the news media provides information without framing or interpreting it in any particular way. The news media presented the Bush administration’s military campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as its domestic antiterrorist efforts, in a positive light. The news media has relentlessly investigated the personal and official wrongdoings of politicians. The media’s continual presentation of corruption in government has fostered cynicism and distrust in the public.
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The concept of a marketplace of ideas refers to
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the competition between varying opinions and ideas that are aired in public forums.
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A liberal would most likely support
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an expansion in governmental social services.
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Which of the following best characterizes the Clinton administration’s attempts to influence public opinion?
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Clinton administration officials used techniques similar to those used in election campaigns to bolster popular enthusiasm for White House initiatives.
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Which of the following statements about political opinions is FALSE?
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The poor are generally less supportive of economic and social programs than the wealthy.
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In 1936, pollsters at the Literary Digest were guilty of ________ when they mistakenly predicted a presidential victory for Alf Landon over Franklin Roosevelt by polling people whose names came from the telephone book and automobile registration records.
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selection bias
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A political ideology is best defined as
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the various attitudes that citizens possess toward political issues, events, and people.
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The fact that survey respondents over report voting in elections and the frequency of their church attendance is an example of ________.
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the social desirability effect
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The social desirability effect refers to
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the fact that respondents report what they expect the interviewer wishes to hear or whatever they think is socially acceptable rather than what they actually believe or know to be true.
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Which of the following statements about the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans in the public is most accurate?
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Differences between the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans on a wide variety of policy questions are greater today than during any other period in the last forty years.
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The increased importance that politicians have placed on public opinion polls over the last 50 years is due partly to
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The fact that public opinion polling is provided to political leaders free of charge. The fact that the Supreme Court has struck down a number of state and federal laws that made public opinion polling illegal. The fact that it has become very difficult for political leaders to experience public opinion directly. The fact that media organizations no longer cover political issues as much as they once did. The fact that protections for freedom of speech have increased dramatically.
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Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support
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school prayer
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Which of the following statements about the marketplace of ideas is true?
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The English created the marketplace of ideas in the seventeenth century. Private groups and the news media play important roles in shaping opinions in the marketplace of ideas. Exposure to the marketplace of ideas rarely leads people to change their minds about political issues. Only individuals, not groups or organizations, are allowed to promote ideas in the marketplace of ideas. Government officials are legally prohibited from promoting ideas in the marketplace of ideas.
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A frequent cause of measurement error in polls is due to ________.
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poorly worded questions
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\”Retail politics\” refers to
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campaigns where candidates meet citizens face-to-face to discuss politics.
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Which of the following statements about the relationship between public opinion and government policy is most accurate?
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Although there is no one-to-one correlation between public opinion and government policy, shifts in public opinion on particular issues frequently lead to changes in government policy.
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The complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the government is called ________
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political ideology
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The fact that Democratic Party leaders have become more liberal and Republican Party leaders more conservative is important because
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partisans in the public tend to rely on party leaders for cues on the appropriate positions to take on major political issues.
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Which of the following statements about the ideological preferences of Americans is FALSE?
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Prior to 2000, there were almost no Americans who identified themselves as liberal.
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________ support abortion rights and oppose state involvement with religious institutions.
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Liberals
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The fact that Americans strongly support the idea that governmental interference with individuals’ lives and property should be kept to a minimum illustrates their commitment to ________.
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liberty
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In recent years, partisan realignment in the South and congressional redistricting have
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reduced the number of conservative Democrats and all but eliminated liberal Republicans from the Congress.
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Which of the following statements best describes perceptions of racism among African Americans and whites?
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African Americans are more likely than whites to believe that racism is very common in the United States today.
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Why does the marketplace of ideas often have a moderating effect on people’s opinions?
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Given constant exposure to other people’s ideas, it is almost impossible for one not to modify one’s own viewpoints.
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Which of the following statements is true with regard to Latino Americans?
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Latino Americans are more likely than African Americans to perceive that America is a racist society. Latino Americans are less likely than African Americans to perceive that America is a racist society. Immigration policy is not very important to Latino Americans. First generation Spanish-speaking immigrants do not share a group affinity. Second and third generation Latino Americans are more likely to consume Spanish-language news than first generation Latino Americans.
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People’s political party preferences are primarily acquired through the influence of
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their families.
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________ is the core political value most highly prioritized by American conservatives.
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Liberty
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the process by which underlying political values are formed is known as
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political socialization.
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The fact that many middle-class and lower-middle-class citizens who did not stand to benefit from President George W. Bush’s tax cuts seemed to favor them is an example of
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bandwagon effects.
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Which of the following statements is true about the news media?
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The mass media are neutral messengers for ideas. The mass media have an enormous impact on public opinion. National journalists tend to avoid investigating political scandals. Journalists tend to provide negative coverage of a president during times of crises. Journalists tend to avoid investigating political corruption.
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________ promoted his policy agenda to the American people through \”fireside chats.\”
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Franklin Roosevelt
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Which of the following statements about governmental public relations efforts is FALSE?
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Due to its size and power, the government is always successful at influencing public opinion.
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Which of the following statements is true about public opinion in the contemporary time period?
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Elected officials are more responsive to the poor than the rich. Technology has eliminated the challenges of \”filter bubbles\” in the United States. The Internet has reduced the amount of political information available to the public. Digital citizenship offers the promise of a more informed electorate. The problem of \”bomb-throwers\” on the Internet has been eliminated.
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One recent survey showed that two-thirds of Americans believe that federal officials are spending \”too little\” money on \”assistance for the poor.\” Yet, another survey conducted at the same time found that only one-tenth of Americans believe that federal officials are spending \”too little\” on \”welfare.\” This example shows that
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selection bias must always be considered when interpreting the results from a poll.
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Liberalism and conservatism are good examples of
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political ideologies.
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The difference between a political value and a political attitude is that
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values are liberal while attitudes are conservative.
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Which of the following is true about Latino voters in the United States?
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Latino voters helped George W. Bush get reelected in 2004.
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Pollsters use random digit dialing to gather national samples for surveys because
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there is not a complete list of all Americans that can be used to identify the population.
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When George W. Bush supporters called conservative white voters during the 2000 South Carolina Republican primary to ask if they would be more or less likely to vote for John McCain if they knew that he had fathered an illegitimate black child, it was an example of
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a push poll.
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The belief that government is a wasteful and dangerous institution and should be limited to as few activities as possible is an example of a political ________.
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ideology
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Which of the following statements about political opinions is not true?
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The poor are generally less supportive of economic and social programs than the wealthy.
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Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?
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Family, membership in social groups, and education are all important agencies of socialization.
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What is one of the main differences between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
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There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education.
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A liberal would most likely support?
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An expansion in governmental social services.
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Political scientist John Zaller (Phil’s mentor at UCLA) argues that?
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The public relies on elite cues when forming opinions about complex policies.
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The practice of push polling involves?
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The procedure of asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent’s opinion.
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As it pertains to general elections, the median voter theorem states that?
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The most reliable strategy for a politician to take in winning reelection is to adopt policies that are consistent with the preferences of ideologically extreme voters.
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Which of the following statements about the forces that shape public opinion is not true?
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All governments try to influence, manipulate, or manage their citizens’ beliefs
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The increased amount of information online?
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Has increased the gap between the haves and the have-nots in terms of political knowledge.

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