Fed Govt Final

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authorize
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Congress’s power to create a federal program or agency and set levels of federal funds to support that program or agency is known as its power to __________
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the national debt
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The sum of loans and interest that the federal government has accrued over time to pay for the federal deficit is known as __________
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Speaker of the House
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The __________ is the only formal leadership position in the House of Representatives that is written into the constitution.
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conference
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The last stage in the congressional legislative process is when the House and Senate meet in __________ committee to resolve any difference that exist in the versions that passed each chamber.
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continuing resolution
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Congress and the president negotiate the federal budget, which expires on September 30 each year. If they fail to do this, Congress enacts a __________ in order to continue funding the government.
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senate
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The power of advice and consent on treaties and presidential nominations was given solely to the __________
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cloture
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The only way to stop a filibuster is by invoking __________, a motion to end debate that requires a supermajority or sixty votes to pass.
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markup
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Committee chairs decide which bills receive hearings and which go on to __________, a meeting in which committee members write the version of the bill that they send to the entire chamber for a vote.
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census
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Because the Framers knew that the country would grow, they required a __________, of the population every ten years, after which the number of congressional districts in each state would be adjusted to reflect population changes.
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seventeenth
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The mode of election for the Senate was changed with the ratification of the __________ Amendment.
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whips
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The majority leader also has nine majority __________ to help get support for the party’s preferred policies and keep lines of communication open between the party leadership and the rank and file membership.
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white and male
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Despite advancements made by underrepresented groups in the electing members to Congress, it is still predominantly __________
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divided government
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When the party that controls Congress is NOT the party of the president, it is referred to as __________
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redistricting
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The House of representatives is subject to __________, which is the redrawing of the boundaries of congressional districts in a state to make them approximately equal in population size.
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house of representatives
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According to the Constitution, all bills for raising revenue should originate in the __________
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standing
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A __________ committee is a permanent committee with the power to write legislation and report it to the full chamber.
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sixteenth
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With the __________ Amendment, passed in 1913, Congress gained the power to “lay and collect taxes on incomes,” whatever the source.
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seniority
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Committee chairs have powerful roles. The chair is typically the majority party member who has the most __________, the longest time served on the committee
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override
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With a two thirds majority vote in each chamber, the Congress can __________ a presidential veto.
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pocket veto
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If Congress will be going out of session within ten days, the president can wait for congress to go out of session and simply not sign a bill, a practice known as a __________
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ranking member
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A __________ is the member of a committee from the minority party with the greatest seniority
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appropriate
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When Congress exercises its power to allocate a set amount of federal dollars for a specific program or agency, it is using its ability to __________
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house minority leader
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The highest ranking minority party member in the House of Representatives is the __________, and his or her main responsibility is crafting the minority party’s position on an issue and serving as the public spokesperson for the party.
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bicameral
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Congress is __________ ; that is, it is divided into two separate chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate.
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united states v. nixon
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In __________, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that executive privilege is not absolute and must give way when the government needs the information for a trial
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lame duck
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Because a president in his second term cannot seek reelection he is commonly referred to as a __________
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omnibus bills
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Congress has learned to get around the threat of a presidential veto by passing __________ that include provisions affecting a number of issues
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treaty
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Two thirds of the Senators present must approve the passage of a __________ for it to be ratified.
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approval by a majority of the Senate
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The presidential appointment process has two steps: nomination and __________
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franklin d. roosevelt
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By not following the precedent set by George Washington of only running for two terms, __________’s fourth term in office prompted the Senate to propose the twenty second amendment that limits the president to two terms.
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vested
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Instead of providing the president with enumerated powers, the Framers __________ the president with a general grant of executive powers.
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bully pulpit
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President Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 described the office of the president as a __________ where presidents could use the attention associated with the office to make a public argument in favor of or against a policy.
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pardon
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When a president issues full forgiveness for a crime committed, it is called a __________
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Twenty fifth
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The __________ Amendment, ratified in 1967, required the president to nominate a replacement vice president, who must be approved by a majority vote of the House and the Senate.
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national defense; economic growth
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The job of the chief executive grew accordingly but, though, increasingly demanding and complex, it remained essentially focused on __________ and __________
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new deal
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To combat the effects of the Great Depression, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a clear policy vision, which he called the __________, and in the first three years of his presidency he succeeded in getting Congress to pass legislation that radically altered the size of the federal government.
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protestant
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Until John Kennedy was elected in 1960, all presidents were from a __________ background.
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a natural born citizen
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Article II, Section I, of the Constitution states that the president must be at least 35 years old, a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years, and __________
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state of the union address
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A powerful tool that presidents can use to influence legislation is the __________
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Twelfth
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The __________ Amendment, ratified in 1804, changed the process so that candidates are elected for presidential and vice president separately, instead of the vice presidency as the person who came in second in the vote for president.
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war powers act
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In October 1973, Congress passed the __________ that states that the president cannot send troops into military conflict for more than sixty days without seeking a formal declaration of war from Congress.
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commander in chief
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Under the power of __________, the president directs all war efforts and military conflict.
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ratify treaties; appropriate money
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The main checks on the president’s foreign policy agenda are the Senates power to __________ and the power of Congress to __________
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Andrew Johnson; Bill Clinton
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At the highest level of federal office, two presidents __________ and __________ have been impeached but neither was convicted by the Senate and both remained in office.
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veto
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The president has the power to __________ bills passed by Congress before they become law by refusing to sign them and sending them back to the chamber in which they originated with his objections.
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vice president
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According to the constitution, who becomes president when the president is removed from office by death, resignation, or inability to perform the duties of the office? __________
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imperial presidency
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The historian and presidential adviser Arthur Schlesinger Jr. used the term “__________” to describe the power of the president to speak for the nation on the world stage and to set the policy agenda at home.
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great society
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President Lyndon Johnson’s programs, which he called the __________, focused on improving race relations and ending poverty because he believed they stood in the way of social, political, and economic progress.
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signing statements
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When a president signs a bill into law, he can issue __________, written remarks that reflect his interpretation of the law, although they are not required or authorized by the Constitution
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federal register
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the official published record of all executive branch rules, regulations, and orders in referred to as the __________
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merit system
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The system of employment under which the employees are chosen and promoted based on merit is known as __________
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regulations
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Guidelines issued by federal agencies for administering federal programs and implementing federal law are referred to as __________
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schedule c appointees
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Federal employees appointed by the president to oversee civil service employees called __________
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article 2
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The foundations of the bureaucracy, while not explicitly stated, can be found in__________ of the Constitution.
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senior executive service
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Senior management personnel in the federal government appointed by the president are called __________
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mission
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Each federal agency has a __________ that defines its role and responsibilities within the federal bureaucracy.
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office of inspector general
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Each federal agency has an __________ that is responsible for monitoring the activities of the agency’s employees.
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patronage system
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In setting up his administration, President Andrew Jackson established a __________ , in which he only appointed employees who pledged loyalty to him.
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office of management and budget
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The __________ has final authority over the entire federal budget, and each agency and department must submit its proposed budget to this group for approval before it is included in the president’s official proposed budget.
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pendleton act
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In response to the assassination of President Garfield, Congress passed the __________ , which established a merit and performance based system for federal employment.
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freedom of information
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In 1966, the __________ Act established procedure by which ordinary citizens can request documents and reports from the federal government by paying and nominal fee, so long as the documents are not classified.
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partisanship
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The Civil Service is designed to protect employees from __________.
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civil service reform
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To encourage cooperation between political appointees and civil servants, and to make sure that each was held accountable for decision making, President Carter proposed the __________ Act of 1978. This act created the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to oversee both categories of federal employees.
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expertise
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Fundamental to the core of the federal bureaucracy is the presumption that the people who hold bureaucratic positions have __________
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political appointees
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Federal employees appointed by the president with the explicit task of carrying out his political and partisan agenda are known as __________
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regulatory process
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The formal responsibility for policy implementation falls to the bureaucracy in what is commonly called the __________
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civil service comission
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Organization that was created by the Pendleton Act to administer exams for the federal civil service and set standards for promotion based on merit known as the __________
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cabinet secretaries
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Most cabinet members are __________ as they are heads of cabinet departments and chief advisers to the president on the issues under their jurisdiction.
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extra national powers
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All bureaucratic agencies share all of the following components except __________
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whistelblowers
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Employees who report mismanagement, corruption, or illegal activity within their agencies are referred to as __________
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career civil servants
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Federal employees who are hired through a merit based system to implement federal programs and who are expected to be neutral in their political affiliations are known as __________
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independent agency
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The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an example of an __________
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bureaucratic culture
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The statement, “Every organization has a culture, that is, a persistent, patterned way of thinking about the central tasks of human relationships within an organization, “describes this central component of a bureaucracy. __________
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bureaucracy
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Of all the components of American government, the __________ is the most likely to have a direct impact on the lives of its citizens.
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adversary process
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A confrontational legal process under which each party presents its version of events is referred to as an __________
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judicial activism
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__________ refers to judges who go beyond what the law requires and seek to impose their own policy preferences on society through their judicial decisions.
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concurring opinion
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An opinion that agrees with the results of the majority opinion ( that is, which party wins) but sets out a separate rationale is known as a __________
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the legal approach
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The method of judicial decision making which claims that justices base their decision on legally relevant materials, such as prior court precedents and the plain meaning of the text of the law under consideration, is called __________
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jurisdiction
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The lawful authority of a court to hear a case is its __________
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solicitor general
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The official in the Justice Department who represents the president in federal court is known as the __________
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majority opinion
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The opinion of a court laying out the official position of the court in the case is known as the __________
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judicial restraint
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Decisions by judges respecting the decisions of other branches or, through the concept of precedent, the decisions of earlier judges, is considered a __________
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judicial review
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When a court declares that a law passed by congress and acts of executive branch are unconstitutional, it is exercising __________
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amicus curiae
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Outside interests can file __________ briefs, stating their concerns in a case.
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marbury v. madison
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The Supreme Court granted itself the power of judicial review in the case of __________
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questions of law
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When a case is appealed, the court of appeals decides the case solely based upon __________
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policy making
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In interpreting the law with an extralegal approach, judges often actively engage in __________
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class action
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A lawsuit filed by one person on behalf of that person plus all similarly situated individuals is referred to as a __________
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criminal cases
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In __________ , the government prosecutes an individual for breaking the law.
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district courts
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__________ are federal trial courts at the bottom of the federal judicial hierarchy.
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petition for a writ of certiorari
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When you file a __________ , you are asking the Supreme Court to review a lower court decision.
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plea bargain
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__________ is an agreement by a criminal defendant to plead guilty in return for a reduced sentence.
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en banc
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A decision made by an entire Court of Appeals circuit is called a __________ decision.
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rule of four
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The Supreme Court rule that grants review to a case as long as four justices agree to support review is known as __________
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dissenting
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Justices who disagree with the result reached by the majority can write a __________ opinion explaining why they believe the Supreme Courts decision was in error.
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article 3
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__________ of the Constitution establishes the judicial branch of government
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courts of appeals
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Intermediate federal courts that are above the district courts and below the Supreme Court are know as __________
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countermajoritarian difficulty
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The term __________ created by Alexander Bickel describes the tension that exists for a representative government when unelected judges have power to strike down laws passed by elected representatives.
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1
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Overall, the Supreme Court grants only about __________ percent of certiorari petitions, leaving the lower court decisions as final in all other cases.
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marketplace of ideas
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Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes refferred to the idea that government should not restrict the expression of ideas because the people are capable of accepting good ideas and rejecting bad ones as the __________
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clear and present danger test
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What First Amendment test requires the state to prove there is a high likelihood that the speech in question would lead to a danger that congress has the right to prevent? __________
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privacy
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In 1973, the Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that a national right to __________ existed.
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bills of libel
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The articles of the Constitution protect civil liberties in all of the following EXCEPT __________
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Fourth
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The __________ Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
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fire
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In a World War I speech case, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote that speech was not absolute, such as a person does not have the right to falsely shout __________ in a crowded theater.
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miller test
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The Supreme Court developed a three pronged test called the __________ to determine whether material can be deemed obscene.
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selective incorporation
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What process did the Supreme Court settle on to incorporate provisions of the Bill of Rights as binding on the states? __________
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exclusionary rule
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If the police conduct a search later found to be unconstitutional, the __________ holds that evidence collected during the search cannot be used in trial.
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right to privacy
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The Constitutional right inferred by the Court that has been to protect unlisted rights such as sexual privacy is __________
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quartering of soldiers
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All of the following rights have been incorporated EXCEPT __________
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the national government, not the state government
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As originally written, the Bill of Rights limited the activities of __________
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anarchy
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Too much freedom can lead to __________ , a state in which everyone does as he or she chooses without regard to others.
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that the government has a compelling interest and the law is narrowly drawn to meet it
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Under the compelling interest test, the federal government or a state can limit rights only if the Supreme Court decides __________
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symbolic speech
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Nonverbal activities the convey a political message, such as saluting the flag, burning the flag, or burning draft cards, are referred to as __________
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violate the first amendment
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The courts have consistently ruled that speech codes __________
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fighting words
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__________ are phrases that might lead the individual to whom they are directed to respond with a punch.
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double jeopardy
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If acquitted by a jury, the __________ clause ensures that the accused cannot be tried for the same crime again.
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civil liberties
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Those rights that are so fundamental that they are outside the authority of government to regulate are known as __________
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due process
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Beginning in 1897, the Supreme Court slowly began to use the protection of “life, liberty, or poperty” in the Fourteenth Amendment’s __________ clause to incorporate some of the provisions of the Bill of Rights as binding on the states.
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lemon test
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In 1971, the Supreme Court created the three pronged __________ to determine if a law violated the establishment clause.
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content neutral
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__________ is when the free speech doctrine allows certain types of regulations of speech, as long as the restriction does not favor one side or another of a controversy.
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writ of habeas corpus
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The right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge, who determines, whether their detention is legal, is known as __________
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probable cause
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Normally, wiretapping requires a warrant signed by a judge or magistrate backed by __________ that a crime is being committed.
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Bill of Rights
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The __________ consists of the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
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loyalty oaths
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Southern politicians used all of the following tactics to disenfranchise African American voters except __________
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private discrimination
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Businesses refusing to serve or hire people on the basis of their race, sex, sexual orientation, or national orientation is an example of __________
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equal employment opportunity commission
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The __________ is an independent agency with commissioners selected for five year fixed terms, which Congress established as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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the university of Mississippi
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President John Kennedy had to send 25,000 federal troops to ensure the enrollment of one black man, James Meredith, at __________ in 1962
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equality of opportunity
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the expectation that citizens may not be discriminated against and should have an equal chance to succeed in life is called __________
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issued the emancipation proclamation
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During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln __________, which made slavery illegal in those states in rebellion as of January 1, 1863,
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Rosa Parks
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On December 1, 1955, police arrested __________ for refusing to give her seat on a bus to a white person
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reconstruction
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The period after the civil war where the former Confederate states gained readmission to the Union and the federal government passed laws to help emancipate slaves is known as __________
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the legal right of private businesses to discriminate, prohibitions on the right to vote, state sponsored segregation of schools, state sponsored segregation of buses
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What legal barriers did African Americans face after World War II? __________
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nineteenth
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By August 1920, with effective lobbying by suffragist groups, three quarters of the states ratified the __________ Amendment, guaranteeing women the right to vote in the November 1920 presidential election.
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Americans with Disabilities Act
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The landmark __________ (1990) requires public and private employers to make “reasonable accommodations” to known physical and mental limitation of employees with disabilities and if possible, to modify performance standards to accommodate an employee’s disability
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strict scrutiny
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The Court has created three standards of review to determine if a law is discriminatory. The toughest of these standards is __________
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citizens
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In Dred Scott v Sanford, the court ruled that not only could Congress not ban slavery in the territories but that blacks were not __________
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none of these – article 1 and 2, amendment 1 and 10
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Slavery is prohibited in __________ of the U.S. constitution.
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equality of outcome
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The expectation that equality is achieved if results are comparable for all citizens, and that all citizens are proportionally represented in measures of success in life is known as __________
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fourteenth
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The __________ Amendment, in addition to guaranteeing that no state shall deny any person due process of law, prohibits states from denying any person the equal protection of the law.
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indian citizenship act
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Native Americans born on reservations did not receive natural born citizen status until the passage of the __________
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citizenship
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Full fledged membership in a nation is called __________
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public discrimination
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The actions of the southern states during the period of segregation, such as denying African Americans the right to vote or appear in public places are examples of __________
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state action
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The courts have ruled that private discrimination is permissible unless it involves significant __________
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civil rights act
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The __________ of 1866 guaranteed the right of freedmen to make contracts, sue in court if those contracts were violated, and own property.
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Korematsu v United States
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In __________ the Court endorsed President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s plan that sent 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation camps.
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separate but equal
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The Court’s ruling in Plessy v Ferguson established the doctrine of __________
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equal protection clause
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In the landmark case Brown v Board of Education, the Court ruled that segregated schools violated the __________
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civil rights
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__________ are the rights related to the duties of citizenship and the opportunities for participation in civic life that the government is obliged to protect

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