Family Studies Exam

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the text observes that we remain hopeful about family commitment because
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families are central to society as an institution and to our everyday lives
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traditionally both law and social science specified that the family consisted of people related by
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blood marriage, or adoption
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The U.S. census bureau defines a family as
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two or more persons sharing a household and who are related by blood marriage, or adoption
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Throughout much of the twentieth century in America, the __________ family has been considered the traditional family.
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nuclear
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As families have become less traditional, the legal definition of a family has
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become much more flexible
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According to the text, in recent years, people have been
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postponing marriage
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Over the past four decades, fertility in the US has
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declined
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The text reports that divorce rates
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have stabilized, although they remain at high levels
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the text concludes that the best way to make decisions about our personal lives is to make them
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knowledgeably
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Children are _____ likely than the general population or the elderly to be living in poverty
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more
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Theoretical perspectives or theories can increase our ____ families and family life
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understanding of
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The climate, soil, plants, and animals are all part of the _____ environment
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natural physical-biological
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Which of the following theoretical perspectives is directly concerned with the influence of family policy
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family ecology
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The sequence of single hood, marriage, parenthood, grand parenthood, and widowhood, are a focus of which of the following perspectives?
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family systems
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The view that the family is an enduring social institution because of the important tasks it performs for society-reproduction, emotional support, socialization of children is the ____ perspective
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structure-functional
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The ____ perspective looks at the family as a whole; for change to occur, the family system as a whole must change.
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family systems
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The centeral focus of the feminist perspective is _____ issues.
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gender
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The ___ perspective argues that hums evolutionary biology affects much of human behavior and, more specifically, many family-related behaviors.
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bio social
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Representative samples are important to family survey research because they are most likely to
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produce the most generalizable figures
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Collecting data over a period of years on a particular topic would reflect a
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longitudinal study
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Jean is attracted to opposite-sex partners. Jean is
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heterosexual
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Pauline is attracted to persons of either sex. Pauline is
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Bisexual
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The ____ perspective sees sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it facilitates responsible reproduction
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Structure functional
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From a ____ perspective, we consider that humans are designed for the purpose of transmitting their genes to the next generation
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bio social
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The interactionist perspective emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of
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sexual scripts
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According to one model (troiden), the process of homosexual constructing their sexual identities occurs in stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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denial
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Which standard of non-marital sex reflects \”recreational sex\”?
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permissiveness without affection
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Which standard of non-marital sex reflects \”recreational sex\”?
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permissiveness without affection
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David and Susan have been married for 20 years. Both are less interested in sex than they were at the beginning of their marriage, and their sexual frequency has declined over this period of time. David and Susan’s circumstances reflect what the text refers to as
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habituation
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HIV/AIDS has now been known for almost _____ years.
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twenty-five
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Almost _____ people are living with AIDS in the US.
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400,000
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______ theory posits that during infancy and childhood individuals develop a general style of bonding with others.
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Attachment
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____ refers to male or female anatomy and physiology and includes the different chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical components of males and females that are present at birth
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Sex
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Which of the following is NOT an example given by the text of women in nontraditional roles?
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housewife
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Consider the statement: \”Due to social pressures, firms frequently have to hire under qualified women.\” This illustrates ____ sexism
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modern
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According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as
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the military
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Our culture has formed a \”_____\” message, according to which a good wife and/or mother also efficiently attains career success and/or supports children by herself.
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Superwoman
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The process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes and expectations is called
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socialization
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The text observers that children imitate models for behavior and re rewarded by parents and others for whatever is perceived as sex-appropriate behavior. This reflects which theory of socialization?
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Social learning
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Some psychologists think that what comes first is not rules about what boys and girls should do, but rather the child’s awareness of being a boy or a girl. This thinking reflects which theory of socialization?
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self-identification
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Overall, gender schema theorists see genders schema as ______ traditional stereotypes.
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maintaining
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Which of the following age categories has the least stable marriages?
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teenagers
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when both spouses come from a divorced family, the probability of their own divorce is higher. Family scholars refer to this phenomenon as the ____ risk.
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inter generational transmission of divorce
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in terms of mate selection patterns, the US is an example of what cross-cultural researchers call a ____ culture.
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free-choice
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the ideas of bargaining, market and resources used to describe relationships such as marriage come to us from ____ theory.
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exchange
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Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects
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homo-gamy
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When the first meeting is ____, interaction often depends upon physical attraction
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face-to-face
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Researchers have found it discouraging that about ____ of abusive datingrelationships continue rather than being broken off.
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half
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Psychologist Lawrence Kurdek has applied ____ theory to whether couple relationships continue.
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exchange
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During the 1990s, the proportion of cohabitors who eventually married their partners
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declined
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In 1976, the U.S. total fertility rate dropped to the lowest level ever recorded, which was
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1.738
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The text points our that in American society, having children is taken for granted, whereas not having children seems to need a justification. This reflects a
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pronatalist bias
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Traditionally in American Society, children were viewed as
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economic assets
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An estimate of the cost of raising a child born in 2001 to the age of 18 for middle-income families was
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$231,470
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What percent of US women surveyed in 2001 said \”no\” to the question of whether a \”woman needs the experience of motherhood to have a complete life?\”
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70
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By, 2002, ____ percent of all births were to unmarried women.
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34
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which racial/ethic group has the highest proportion of non-marital births?
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African American
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the increase in childbearing among older single women is largely a ____ phenomenon.
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white
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of any industrialized country, which nation has by far the highest teen pregnancy, abortion, and birthrates
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the United Sates
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in 2000, there were more than ____ adopted children in the US households.
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2 million
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The labor force emerged during the ____
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Industrial Revolution
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The pronounced tendency for men and women to be employed in different types of jobs is termed
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occupation segregation
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Women who wored full time in 2006 earned ___ cents for every dollar earned by men
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81
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Sociologist Jessie Bernard asserted that the ____ role for men emerged in the US during the 1830s
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good provider
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Today, the statistical norm among married couples is the ____ marriage
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two-earner
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______ involves the necessary tasks f attending both the emotional needs of all family members and the practical needs of dependent members, as well as maintaining the family domicile
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Unpaid family work
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University of Michigan researchers cited in the text use the term \”____\” in nothing that, as men and women are both putting in more hours of employment, the total amount of time a couple spends on housework has declined.
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vanishing housework
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The term ___ refers to child care provided in a caregiver’s home.
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family child care
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____ involves providing assistance with daily lining activities to an elderly relative who chronically frail, ill, disabled, or just in need of assistance
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Elder care
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____ involves an employee being able to take extended period of time from work, either paid or unpaid, for maternity, paternity, ill-child and elder-care purposes.
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family leave
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Alice Rossi has observed that transition to parenthood is more difficult than the transition to other adult roles for several reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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Unlike other adult roles, the transition to parent hood is extremely gradual
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An opposite image from \”good\” father are \”____,\” who \”are eschewing even minimal responsibility for their children.\”
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deadbeat dads
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Which parenting style is preferred by child psychologists?
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authoritative
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According to the text, spanking refers to
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hitting a child with a open hand without causing physical injury.
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Children make up _____ percent of the homeless
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one-quarter
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The _____ census was the first to offer citizens the option of identifying themselves as more than one race.
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2000
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Ethnicity is often associated with
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religious belief
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It is estimated that ___ children under age eighteen are ling in a grandparent’s household.
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more than 3.6 million
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It is estimated that ____ US children are in foster care.
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more than 500,0000

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