FACS 50 Midterm Essay

question

1. In the United States there appears to have been a broad cultural shift in the values Americans hold most dear. The general trend has been from an emphasis on ________ to _________.
answer

D. parenting; self-fulfillment
question

2. ______________ individualism can best be described as a style of life that emphasizes the development of one’s own feelings and emotional satisfaction.
answer

C. expressive
question

3. The primary family unit in Western nations is
answer

C. the small, household-based family of parents and children.
question

4. The ___________ can be described as the tendency to obtain public goods by allowing others to do the work of providing them.
answer

D. free rider problem
question

5. Of the following, which group would not fit the definition of a public family?
answer

B. A childless married couple with no dependents
question

6. While the public family is about _______, the private family is about __________.
answer

A. caretaking and dependency/nurturing and intimacy
question

7. In 2004, the state of _______________ became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage, joining the countries of Canada, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands.
answer

B. Massachusetts
question

8. Those most likely to view marriage as a socially constructed institution organized to maintain male dominance most likely subscribe to the principles of
answer

A. feminist theory.
question

9. According to the __________ perspective personal identity and choices become more important and more often reflected upon.
answer

B. postmodern
question

10. Today, most Americans view the family as a(n) _________ institution.
answer

A. private
question

11. A state in which family members are unsure of who is and who is not in the family is referred to as
answer

C. boundary ambiguity
question

12. To conduct ………….. studies, researchers may join the group they are interested in and live with them for a period of time.
answer

D. observational
question

13. The liberals in the U.S government are in support of policies that intend to promote two-married parents families.
answer

B. False
question

14. Over the past few decades, nearly all Western nations have undergone similar changes with respect to family life including:
answer

a. Increases in cohabitation, childbearing outside of marriage, and divorce
question

15. The theory stating that women and men’s behaviors in the family are linked to their different procreative strategies is
answer

c. Evolutionary theory
question

16. If you were concerned with the way families discipline their children, handle their disagreements, or share their affection, you would be focusing on the:
answer

d. Private family.
question

17. An adult child who takes care of elderly parents – shopping and cooking for them, taking them to doctors, and so on – is producing a
answer

c. Public good
question

18. One disadvantage of survey research on family is the limited information that can be gathered.
answer

A. True
question

19. Reflexivity is the process where individuals take in knowledge, look carefully at it, and alter their behavior as a result of it
answer

A. True
question

20. According to the postmodern perspective, the late modern era is characterized by constrained choices and lives similar to those of our grandparents.
answer

A. True
question

1. French colonists used the term “berdache” to refer to:
answer

D. Native Americans who dressed in the clothing of the opposite sex and took on opposite gender roles
question

2. In sociological terms, gender is considered a ………………..creation, while sex is considered a …………….. creation.
answer

A. Social/ biological
question

3. “Two-spirited” females were most likely to be found in societies
answer

D. where men had less control over women.
question

4. The feminist-influenced branch of men’s studies believe that male aggressiveness is
answer

A. a social construct
question

5. Of the following which is “gendered”? A. housework B. child care C. work for wages
answer

D. all of the above
question

6. When trying to explain the interactionist approach to gender development we could use an example of:
answer

D. A man opening the car door to a female and a woman reciprocating with cooking a dinner for him.
question

7. A theoretical perspective stating that men and women developed different strategies in order to increase their chances for procreation and gene transmission is the:
answer

C. Evolutionary biology
question

8. When it comes to children’s games, girls are….likely than boys to play organized games with rules and goals.
answer

B. Less
question

9. A consistent finding across all studies of the play behavior of young girls and boys is that
answer

A. boys, on average, show more competitive behavior than girls.
question

10. A 1990 study of randomly selected music videos on Music Television (MTV) found which of the following?
answer

C. Stereotyped sex and gender roles were still prevalent.
question

11. According to interactionist theory proponents such as West and Zimmerman, the way to change contemporary male and female differences in infant caretaking is to involve men equally with women in the early caretaking of their young
answer

A. True
question

12. The sharp distinctions between what men and women do in families in the United States is unique compared with most societies.
answer

B. False
question

13. The trend in our society that encourages men to get “in touch” with their masculinity while being good husbands and fathers is called:
answer

C. Promise Keepers
question

14. Hormone influences of the mother on her fetus in the second trimester of pregnancy fully determine children’s behaviors.
answer

B. False
question

15. The interactionist approach system is the theory that gender identification and behavior are based on the day-to-day behavior that reinforces gender distinctions.
answer

A. True
question

16. Tendency for attitudes and values to change more slowly than the circumstances that underlie them
answer

Cultural lag
question

17. Theory that gender identification and behavior are based on children’s learning that they will be rewarded for a set of behaviors considered appropriate for one sex but not for the other
answer

Socialization approach
question

18. The greater change in women’s lives than in men’s lives
answer

Asymmetry of Gender change
question

19. Biological characteristics that distinguish men and women
answer

Sex
question

20. Based on the sociology of gender espoused by West and Zimmerman
answer

Interactionist approach
question

1. When Barack Obama was born in Hawaii to an interracial married couple in 1961 at least ________ states had laws forbidding marriages between whites and non-whites.
answer

B. fifteen
question

2. The number of births and deaths among American Indians did not change dramatically between 1970 and 1980. How would you explain the 72 percent rise in their population during this same time period?
answer

C. More people began to think of themselves as American Indian and reported themselves to the U.S. Census as that
question

3. The racial-ethnic group with the greatest number of children under 18 not living with either parent is
answer

D. African American.
question

4. Among Hispanics, the racial-ethnic group members who, on average, are the least likely to formally marry are
answer

C. Puerto Ricans.
question

5. Family households in the United States most likely to marry a spouse of a different race are from the __________ racial-ethnic group.
answer

B. Asian American
question

6. The decline in marriage among African Americans can be explained by the following phenomenon:
answer

A. the lack of suitable marriage partners for women due to job losses and incarceration among men.
question

7. The __________ family is thought to be superior in allowing people to be upwardly mobile, as is evidenced by the success of Cubans.
answer

A. conjugal
question

8. The first wave of Cuban-American immigrants, in contrast to most other major immigrant groups in the United States, arrived in _____.
answer

A. a political migration
question

9. Since the 1970s, families whose income lies Puerto Ricans have the least selective migration patterns among Hispanics. This would partially explain their __________.
answer

B. low economic standing among Hispanic groups living in the United States
question

10. The _________ category has become an umbrella for an extremely diverse group of people that differ in language, religion, and physical features. A. African American B. Hispanic. C. Asian American
answer

D. Both B and C
question

11. The economically disadvantaged position of American Indian families is most comparable to that of
answer

B. African American families
question

12. One way mentioned by Cherlin in which Asian culture differs from American culture pertains to
answer

B. the responsibility assumed by adult children for their parents
question

13. The most prosperous Hispanic group in the United States today is the Cuban-American group.
answer

A. True
question

14. Many Hispanic family households are headed by an unmarried male
answer

B. False
question

15. Grandparents play a more important role, on average, in the lives of white families than in black families
answer

B. False
question

16. cohabiting relationship in which a couple consider themselves to be married but have had no legal or religious ceremony
answer

consensual union
question

17. mediating structure in the lives of African Americans
answer

the church
question

18. economic advantage a person has by virtue of the structure of his or her relations with other people
answer

social capital
question

19. Extent to which black women’s lives are affected by overlapping systems of race, class and gender-based disadvantage
answer

Intersectionality
question

20. large, dense, single-ethnic group that is relatively self-sufficient
answer

immigrant enclave
question

1. Throughout most of their existence, human beings have been
answer

B. hunter-gatherers
question

2. About ___________ years ago, humans discovered the advantage of remaining in one place and planting crops.
answer

B. 10 000
question

4. A form of polygamy in which a man is allowed to have more than one wife is also referred to as
answer

. polygamy
question

5. One of the purposes for tracking lineages through either paternal OR maternal lineage was:
answer

A. To limit the number of people with whom one must share land and resources.
question

6. What was/were important part(s) of the affective individualism that arose during the 1700s?
answer

B. greater sense of self-satisfaction
question

7. The emergence of a protected, extended stage of childhood in the 1800s occurred as a result of
answer

D. the spread of schooling and a decline in child deaths.
question

8. The spread of industrial capitalism in the mid-1800s led to many social changes, including:
answer

B. most family members exchanging labor for wages.
question

9. Contrary to what they considered to be today, children in colonial America were considered to be:
answer

C. Economic assets
question

10. The real responsibility of the True Woman as described by historian Barbara Welter was
answer

C. to save men from immoral behavior and take over much of the day-to-day home tasks for men
question

11. The spread of industrial capitalism in the mid-1800s led to many social changes, including:
answer

c. Separate spheres for men and women
question

12. The disruption of slave families was more severe in
answer

B. The Appalachian area
question

13. The 1965 Immigration Act drastically changed the number of people allowed in the United States from Asia and the largest group to migrate since then has been from:
answer

B. China
question

14. Which immigrant group sent monetary remittances home to family members in their country of origin?
answer

C. Chinese Americans
question

15. The primary job open to African-American women prior to the 1960s was:
answer

B. Domestic servant
question

16. Despite idealistic notions to the contrary, kinship developed primarily as a means of survival.
answer

a. True
question

17. African American families maintained weaker kinship links than other groups
answer

b. False
question

18. Many couples who were married during the Great Depression stayed married because of economics, not necessarily because of happiness
answer

a. True
question

19. U.S. women of the 1950s are married at an earlier age (for their first marriage) than U.S. women in previous generations.
answer

a. True
question

20. The term “stem family” refers to a family which includes aging parent(s) and one adult child who lives with them in the same household.
answer

a. True
question

1. A proper Puritan marriage was based on each of the factors below EXCEPT
answer

d. Sexuality
question

2. Historical evidence seems to suggest that ………. sexual activity among Puritans was not accepted by religious authorities and the community as a whole.
answer

a. Extramarital
question

3. What was the penalty for rape, adultery, sodomy, or any sexual activity not approved by the Bible under the laws of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
answer

c. Death
question

4. The Industrial Revolution initiated a gradual breakdown in the pattern in which the order of a son’s birth was closely connected to the economic status of his future spouse. This fact can be best explained by the fact that in the in the earlier centuries
answer

c. Firstborn sons were given the largest share of the parental estate and so they were in a better position to find a spouse with similar assets
question

5. One of the characteristics of the Victorian era was that
answer

d. Women were perceived as asexual beings who happily accepted their lack of sexuality
question

6. What would be the LEAST likely reason for a Victorian man to choose his future spouse?
answer

a. Sexual attraction he feels toward her
question

7. Prior to 1900, a marital sex life that was too satisfying was spiritually suspect.
answer

a. True
question

8. At the beginning of the 20th century, some important changes in the lives of women took place. One of the most significant was that women’s _______________ was now openly acknowledged, which expressed itself, among others, in their _______________.
answer

c. Sexuality; clothing and cosmetics
question

9. Other changes that took place at the beginning of the 20s century was the movement toward women’s rights to birth control. The most outspoken person of this movement was:
answer

b. Margaret Sanger
question

10. Which of the following criteria seems to matter most to men in choosing a spouse?
answer

a. Good looks
question

11. Which of the following seems to matter most to women in choosing a spouse?
answer

b. Education and income
question

12. Currently, there is more permissiveness toward ……….sex than ever before.
answer

b. Premarital
question

13. Women seem to be guided by romantic love and …………….. in the choice of their partners whereas men are guided by romantic love and ……………….in their choice of partners.
answer

c. Practical criteria; physical attractiveness
question

14. One of the changes in adolescent pregnancy in recent decades is that ………… than it was several decades ago.
answer

c. The likelihood that these pregnancies will result in birth outside marriage is higher
question

15. In the textbook discussion of teenage pregnancy “problem”, the selection effect indicates that many of the girls who become pregnant make inappropriate choices in the selection of men who father their children
answer

b. False
question

16. Homosexual couples do not have access to the ___________ institutions that support heterosexual couples.
answer

a. Legal
question

17. Psychiatrists and psychologists have been very successful in changing the sexual orientation of their gay and lesbian clients.
answer

b. False
question

18. The AIDS is a “silent epidemic” that in a recent decade has affected ………….the most.
answer

b. White males
question

19. Who in the USA is at virtually no risk of HIV infection?
answer

c. Married couples with no outside partners
question

20. In the 2000s, sexual monogamy in the exception rather than the rules among married partners.
answer

b. False
question

1. When asked on surveys (such as the General Social Survey) to which social class they belong, most U.S. residents respond that they are either:
answer

b. Working class or middle class
question

2. Of the following, the best example of an assortative marriage would be
answer

C. a Protestant college graduate marrying a Catholic college graduate
question

3. According to Max Weber’s “ideal type” of social classes, which is a characteristic most likely found in middle-class families?
answer

d. These families are more likely to take family vacations
question

4. A group of people who share a common style of life and often identify with each other is called a/an
answer

C. status group
question

5. According the text and lecture, workers who may not work for an entire week and who often do not have fringe benefits are………workers.
answer

d. Lower-class
question

6. Due to economic restructuring in the United States, most jobs available to younger workers without college education are
answer

c. Low-paying service and unskilled manual-labor jobs
question

7. Chances of divorce have been _______ for college graduates and ________ for people who did not graduate from high school
answer

B. declining; increasing
question

8. Since the 1970s, families whose income lies in the middle of the income distribution (of all U.S. families) have kept up with the cost of living primarily by:
answer

d. Having wives take on jobs outside the home
question

9. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the strengths and weaknesses of relying on a large kinship network for support?
answer

a. Kin support helps people subsist when faced with poverty but may make
question

10. The families belonging to the _____ are the most likely to influence their children’s choice of marriage partners.
answer

a. Upper class.
question

11. The resources and opportunities that people have to provide themselves with material goods and favorable living conditions are called
answer

A. life chances
question

12. Each class socializes its children to fill the same positions as their parents have filled.
answer

a. True
question

13. We also saw a video about
answer

d. We did not see any such video
question

14. Middle-class families in the USA are more likely to exchange financial support
answer

a. Between children and parents.
question

15. The significant differences in U.S. family incomes today is determined by whether or not the parent(s) has a college degree.
answer

a. True
question

16. Earnings among the U.S. workers have become more equal over time
answer

b. False
question

17. The segregation of what men and women do in their families is more pronounced in:
answer

a. Working class families
question

18. “Women-centered kinship” is typical to:
answer

d. Lower-class families
question

19. All of the following are advantages that middle-class children gain from “the accomplishment of natural growth” except which?
answer

C. They are more physically fit.
question

20. Since the 1970s, social class differences among the families have:
answer

a. Decreased

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member