Exploring Psychology Ch. 10 (Kohlert)

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Facial Feedback Effect
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The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings, such as fear, anger, or happiness
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Emotional Arousal
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Ability to flip rapidly between two emotions.
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How might students report feeling when rubber bands raise their cheeks as though in a smile?
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Report feeling more happy
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How might students report feeling when rubber bands pull their cheeks downward?
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Report feeling more sad
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Are people in different cultures more likely to differ in their interpretations of facial expressions, or of gestures?
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Gestures
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__________(Woman/Man) report experiencing emotions more deeply, and they tend to be more adept at reading nonverbal behavior.
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Woman
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Polygraph
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a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breaking changes) accompanying emotion.
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How does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system affect our emotional responses?
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The sympathetic division of the ANS arouses us for more intense experiences of emotion, pumping out stress hormones to prepare our body for fight or flight.
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How does the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system affect our emotional responses?
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The parasympathetic division of the ANS takes over when a crisis passes, restoring our body to a calm physiological and emotional state.
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Difference between the researchers (Zajonc/Ledoux and Lazarus/Schachter/Singer) approach to emotional responses occuring in the absence of cognitive processing
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Zajonc and LeDoux: Suggested we experience some emotions without any conscious, cognitive appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter and Singer: Emphasized the importance of appraisal and cognitive labeling in our experience of emotion.
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According to Schachter and Singer, two factors lead to our experience of an emotion: (1) physiological arousal and (2) __________ appraisal.
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Cognitive
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Two-factor Theory
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The Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
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Cannon-Bard Theory
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The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
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James-Lange Theory
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The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
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Emotion
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A response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
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Achievement Motivation
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A desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of skills or ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard.
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Social networking tends to _________ (strengthen/weaken) your relationships with people you already know, __________ (increase/decrease) your self-disclosure, and __________ (reveal/hide) your true personality.
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Strengthen//Increase//Reveal
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How have students reacted in studies where they were made to feel rejected and unwanted? What helps explain these results?
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These students’ basic need to belong seems to have been disrupted. They engaged in more self-defeating behaviors, underperformed on aptitude tests, and displayed less empathy and more aggression.
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Which THREE of the following five strategies help prevent unwanted weight gain? a. Proper sleep b. Regular exercise c. Eating the heaviest meal in the evening d. Eating with friends e. Joining a support group
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A///B///C
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After an eight hour hike without food, your long awaited favorite dish is placed in front of you, and your mouth waters in anticipation. Why?
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You have learned to respond to the sight and aroma that signal the food about to enter your mouth. Both physiological cues (low blood sugar) and psychological clues (anticipation of the tasty meal) heighten your experienced hunger.
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Basal Metabolic Rate
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The body’s resting rate of energy expenditure
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Set Point
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The point at which your \”weight thermostat\” is supposedly. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight.
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Insulin
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Hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
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Ghrelin
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Hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends \”I’m hungry\” signals to the brain
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Leptin
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Protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
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Orexin
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Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus
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PYY
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Digestive tract hormone; send \”I’m not hungry\” signals to the brain
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Glucose
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The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
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Hierarchy of Needs
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Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
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The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
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Motivation
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A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
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Instinct
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A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
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Drive-reduction Theory
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The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
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Homeostasis
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A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
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Incentive
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A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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