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Experiencing the Lifespan – 3rd Edition Chapter 7

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Parenting Style
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In Diana Baumrinds framework, how parents align on two dimensions of child-rearing: nurturance (or child-centeredness) and discipline (or structure and rules)
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Authoritative parents
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in the parenting style framework the best possible child rearing style in which parents rank high on both nurturance and discipline, providing both love and clear family rules
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Authoritarian parents
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In the parenting style framework a type of child rearing in which parents provide plenty of rules but rank low on child-centeredness, stressing unquestioning obedience
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permissive parents
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in the parenting style framework a type of child rearing in which parents provide few rules but rank high on child centeredness being extremely loving but providing little discipline
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rejecting neglecting parents
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in the parenting styles framework the worst child rearing approach in which parents provide little discipline and little nurturing or love
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resilient children
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children who rebound from serious early life traumas to construct successful adult lives
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acculturation
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among immigrants the tendency to become more similar in terms of attitudes and practices to the mainstream culture after time spent living in a new society
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child maltreatment
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any act that seriously endangers a childs physical or emotional well being
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achievement tests
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measures that evaluate a childs knowledge in specific school related areas
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WISC (wechsler intelligence scale for children)
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the standard intelligence test used in childhood consisting of a verbal scale (questions for the child to answer) a performance scale (materials for the child to manipulate) and a variety of subtests
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dyslexia
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a learning disability that is characterized by reading difficulties lack of fluency and poor word recognition that is often genetic in orgin
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gifted
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the label for superior intellectual functioning characterized by an IQ score of 130 or above showing that a child ranks in the top 2 percent of his age group
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reliability
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in measurement terminology a basic criterion of a tests accuracy that scores must be fairly similar when a person takes the test more than once
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validity
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in measurement terminology a basic criterion for a tests accuracy involving whether that measures reflects the real world quality it is supposed to measure
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flynn effect
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remarkable and steady rise in overall performance on IQ tests that has been occurring around the world over the past century
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analytic intelligence
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in Robert Sternbergs framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involving performing well on academic type problems
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creative intelligence
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in Robert Sternbergs framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involved in producing novel ideas or innovative work.
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practical intelligence
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in Robert Sternbergs framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involved in knowing how to act competently in real world situations
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Successful inteligence
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In Robert Sternbergs framework, the optimal form of cognition, involving having a good balance of analytic, creative, and practical intelligence
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Multiple intelligence theory
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In Howard Gardner’s perspective on intelligence, the principle that there are eight separate kinds of intelligence – verbal, mathematical, interpersonal, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, naturalist – plus a possible ninth form, called spiritual intelligence
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intrinsic motivation
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the drive to act based on the pleasure of taking that action in itself, not for an external reinforcer or reward
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extrinsic motivation
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the drive to take an action because that activity offers external reinforcers such as praise, money, or a good grade
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corporal punishment
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the use of physical force to discipline a child
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mentally retarded
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the label for significantly impaired intellectual functioning, defined as when a child (or adult) has an IQ of 70 or below accompanied by evidence of deficits in learning abilities
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Specific learning disability
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the label for any impairment in language or any deficit related to listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or understanding mathematics; diagnosed when a score on an intelligence test is much higher than a child’s performance on achievement tests
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\”g\”
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Charles Spearmans term for general intelligence factor that he claimed underlines all cognitive activities.
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List several types of families.
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traditional two parent family (never divorced couples with biological children) blended families (spouses have divorced and remarried so children grow up with stepparents and often stepsibilings) adoptive parents, gay parents, foster parents, and grandparent-headed families and one parent families.
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Can children thrive in every type?
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Yes
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For which type is economic hardship often a fact of life?
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children growing up with single moms
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What are the two dimensions of child rearing that compose parenting style?
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Nurturance (or child centerdness) and discipline (or structure and rules)
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List Baumrind’s parenting styles.
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authoritative parents well rounded authoritarian parents loving but strict permissive parents carefree but loving rejecting neglecting parents bad parents
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Which style is felt to be the most effective?
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authoritative
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Why don’t Baumrind’s categories reflect the complexities of real-life parenting?
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because child rearing involves many different behaviors (not just love and discipline), the approaches also vary by culture and ethnicity, these approaches also change, depending on the environment (eg cohort or time you live in)
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What qualities allow children to be resilient?
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they have special talents like being able to write real good, or superior cognitive skills. they are adaptable and are able to regulate their emotions they have high self efficacy and an optimistic worldview. They posses a strong faith or sense of meaning in life. Also they have good social skills,
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What did the (Dunedin Study) find out about resilience and the presence of long or short forms of the serotonin-regulating gene?
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pl with the long for of serotonin are insulated from breaking down under stress but the same \”environmental immunity\” gene form may be a liability when the wider world is nurturing and calm
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How much do parents matter? What do behavioral geneticists claim? What does Judith Harris say?
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they matter but not that much cause it also depends on genetics, peers, enviornment and everything else BG think the link is between parent and child genetic tendencies not between \”good and bad parenting\” , JH says parents don’t matter.
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How important is providing the best possible environment for children?
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so children realize their genetic potential
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Can sensitive parenting make a critical difference?
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it can make a huge difference for children that are at risk
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How important is it for parents to be flexible with their parenting style?
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its important because the proper parent style also depends on the child or environment and you have to better fit your parenting style according to those two things. Moreover, a child cant be massaged into having an idealized adult life since he future does not totally depend on you and so you need to focus on the quality of your relationship.
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What qualifies as corporal punishment?
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an discipline technique using physical measures such as spanking
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Why is spanking controversial?
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some people think children become spoiled when they dont get spanked and some others think spanking is what causes problems and makes children believe its okay to use violence.
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What are four types of child maltreatment?
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Physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.
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Why is it difficult to calculate rates of child abuse?
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even if we had the best definitions, it would be difficult to actually pin down the actual incidence of child abuse plus most cases are not reported.
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What are some risk factors for child maltreatment?
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CM can compromise the developing frontal lobes, they can also carry their attachment problems into adulthood, they may earn less when they grow up, may suffer from bad physical health, and may be more likely to maltreat their own kids.
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What can be done to reduce child abuse?
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keep the child in the family and provide parents with intensive support
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What should you do if you suspect that a child is being abused?
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call CPS
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T or F: Children of divorce are at no higher risk of academic, social, physical, or mental health problems.
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T
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Is it better to stay in a bad marriage for the sake of the children?
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NO
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What are some counseling interventions?
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During chaotic parenting and separating you should offer emotional support to the children and encourage open discussions allowing the kids to have some say in visitations also for parents would need some support so they could better adjust to their new lives. When all of that is set and done and you are reorganizing your life counselors should foster authoritative custodial parenting, discourage parents from suing their children as pawn to express anger and discourage parents from fighting over custody.
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How does socioeconomic status correlate with scores on tests of reading readiness and math?
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low income families on average do markedly worse than their upper middle class counterparts on tests of readiness and math
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What are some of the reasons for these inequalities?
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less money for buying books and food. parents don’t read to them. rarely had computers – don’t go to museums so they are less likely to provide them with the environment they need to flourish.
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What are the differences between intelligence and achievement tests?
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the IT is designed to predict a persons general academic potential or ability to master any school related task, AT are yearly evaluations children take to measure their knowledge in various subjects.
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What is the WISC and how is it used?
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Its the current standard intelligence test it is devided into two sections, the verbal scale that has you answer questions and the performance scale that involves manipulating materials.
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T or F: A child is classified as having a specific learning disability when his or her score on achievement tests is higher than his or her score on an IQ test.
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F other way around
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What are some interesting facts about dyslexia?
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1/4 senior were reading below the most basic levels. specific learning disabilities are mainly male diagnosed. dyslexia is mostly genetic late appearing language and phonemic deficits are early predictors of dyslexia children prone to dyslexia may even be identified during their first week after birth by looking at the pattern of their brain waves evoked by sounds even though children with dyslexia are sooner or later able to read sometimes it might not be till their adults people with dyslexia perform more poorly on general tests of executive functions.
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What is the implication of a child’s IQ exceeding 130?
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he will be eligible for his schools gifted program
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What can we learn from cases like Aimee’s?
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that like her children with dyslexia could become college adults if you really try and don’t give up
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What do we mean by reliability and validity and why are they important?
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reliability is needed in a test to make sure it doesn’t vary much even if the person takes the same test again, this shows it gives the individual their one and only IQ and validity is used means that the test must predict what it is suppose to be measuring
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For low-income children, the IQ score mainly reflects ______ ______.
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environmental forces
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What is g?
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its a general underlying, all encompassing intelligence factor
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What does Sternberg believe about traditional intelligence tests?
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that it can do damage in the school enviornment
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How does Sternberg define successful intelligence?
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a balance of analytic intelligence, creative intelligence and practical intelligence.
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What does Gardner say about intelligence?
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He agrees IQ tests do matter fail to account for a child’s unique talents and gifts , according to him and his multiple intelligence theory, humans abilities come in eight and possibly nine distinctive forms.
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How has Gardner’s theory been applied to education?
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the main use of his theory has been in helping non traditional learners succeed in traditional schools
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What did Sternberg’s research team demonstrate?
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that teaching with every type of intelligence in mind produces better classroom performance.
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Can students thrive in every kind of school? Explain.
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Yes, provided schools have an intense commitment to student learning and teachers can excite students to learn
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What qualities make a school successful?
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setting high standards for their students and believing that every child can succeed. teachers offer an excess of nurture to the students and their families, successful schools are authoritative in their approach and mainly their students are thriving despite their environment or less than favorable conditions.
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Contrast intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
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intrinsic motivations refers to self generated actions, those we take from our inner desires, when Piaget described our hunger to learn, he wad referring to intrinsic motivations Extrinsic motivations refers to activities that we undertake in order to get external reinforces such as praise or pay or good grades.
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What factors in education erode intrinsic motivation?
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the fact that our being graded on what you are learnin, but being compared to their peers also erodes intrinsic motivation, because it involves rote memorization and kids are not free too set their own learning goals.
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When can external reinforcers be important?
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external reinforces can have a good effect on our internal self making us want more or making us like it at the end.Also, extrinsic task can take on intrinsic feelings when they foster our need for autonomy or offer us choice of how to do our work.
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What is the key to transforming school learning?
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teaching in a creative way, or embedding literacy into high interests activities, like theater arts, may be the most intelligent strategy for student success across the board. also teachers that provide excellent school learning have clear priorities, they provide consistent standards, they understand each child’s gifts and weaknesses, they tailor their behavior to the needs of a given child.
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1. Approximately ______ out of three U.S. families with children are categorized as \”two-parent\” families.
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2
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2. Jessica is always concerned about her children, and believes that her most important task as a parent is to \”be there for her children.\” Karen, on the other hand, loves her children dearly, but believes that her most important task is to enforce the family’s rules. These women differ in their:
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parenting styles.
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3. Paul, a 10-year-old, is the envy of his classmates because he has told them that he doesn’t have a set bedtime and is free to stay up as late as he wants on most nights, as long as he gets enough rest. Paul is a reasonably well-adjusted child, who feels that his parents love him very much. Paul’s parents are MOST LIKELY to be considered:
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permissive parents.
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4. Psychologist Judith Harris argues that our behavior is primarily shaped by:
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our peer group.
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5. You can predict that all of these parents are more likely to spank their children EXCEPT:
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people who report having been abused as a child.
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6. Which statement best reflects the \”child’s contribution to the risk of being abused\”?
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The child’s temperament can influence the risk of being abused.
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7. All of these forces help explain why disadvantaged children enter school academically behind their affluent counterparts EXCEPT:
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their parents show less affection.
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8. Marjorie has been diagnosed with a learning disability that involves difficulty in reading, lack of fluency and poor word recognition. Marjorie’s mother reports that her grandmother had the same disability. Marjorie has been diagnosed with:
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dyslexia.
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9. From the age of 3, Sam has been raised by his mother who works 50 hours per week at a minimum-wage job. Sam goes to a \”failing\” school. You can predict that Sam’s IQ test results probably reflect ______ more than ______.
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environmental forces; genetically based abilities
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10. What was Howard Gardner’s main agenda in developing his concept of multiple intelligences?
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Let’s focus on measuring a child’s unique talents and gifts.
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11. Which of the following kinds of intelligences would be measured on a test devised by Howard Gardner?
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interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, kinesthetic
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12. Elementary schools that are \”beating the odds,\” or exceeding expectations, do all of the following EXCEPT:
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provide worksheet drills to help students pass state standardized tests.
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13. Studying only in order to raise your GPA is an example of which type of motivation?
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extrinsic motivation
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14. All are tips for teachers described in the text EXCEPT:
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praising children for brilliance.
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1. William expects instant obedience from his children when he tells them to do something, such as clean up their rooms. Richard is typically willing to negotiate with his children regarding household chores. In terms of Baumrind’s parenting styles William is ______ and Richard is ______.
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authoritarian; authoritative
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2. Four-year-old Rachel has parents who provide no rules and are not very affectionate. Rachel’s parents have a(n) ______ parenting style.
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rejecting-neglecting
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3. Fiona is from a family of eight and lives in a low-income urban housing project. Her mother \”rules with an iron fist.\” Rachel’s mother is vigilant, highly rule-oriented, puts up with no talking back from the kids. According to the text, this mom may:
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be acting appropriately, in dangerous environments this kind of parenting may work best.
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4. Jorge’s family moved to the United States from Mexico when he was 6-years old. Jorge now speaks more English than both of his parents and is becoming similar in attitudes and practices to his American friends. Jorge is now undergoing:
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acculturation.
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5. Crystal and her husband are divorcing and Crystal is worried about the impact on their 10- and 13-year-old kids. You can give her all of these tips EXCEPT:
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go for joint custody—it’s always better.
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6. When administered the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), Jeremy received an IQ score of 65. What is his classification?
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mental retardation
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7. Paula’s IQ is 114. Yet, in the seventh grade, Paula reads on a third-grade level. Paula is MOST LIKELY:
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dyslexic.
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8. Raquel has a natural ability to understand other people. Gardner would label Raquel high in _____ intelligence.
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interpersonal
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9. Victor enjoys playing the guitar and practices for hours at a time. He says that practicing is a very pleasurable activity for him, and he does not do it for any tangible reward. Victor is:
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intrinsically motivated.
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10. Barbara has recently shown interest in helping her mother with chores. She asks to put the dishes away and water the plants. Her mother notices that she seems to really enjoy doing these things and decides to give Barbara $1 for every chore she completes. Given the research on providing extrinsic rewards for intrinsically motivating activities, you may predict:
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Barbara soon won’t like doing chores and will only perform them if she gets paid.