Experiencing the Lifespan – 3rd Edition Chapter 2

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uterus
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The pear-shaped muscular organ in a woman’s abdomen that houses the developing baby.
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cervix
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The neck, or narrow lower portion, of the uterus.
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fallopian tube
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One of a pair of slim pipe-like structures that connect the ovaries with the uterus.
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ovary
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One of a pair of almond-shaped organs that contain a woman’s ova, or eggs.
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ovum
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An egg cell containing the genetic material contributed by the mother to the baby.
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fertilization
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The union of sperm and egg.
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ovulation
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The moment during a woman’s monthly cycle when an ovum is expelled from the ovary.
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hormones
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Chemical substances released in the bloodstream that target and change organs and tissues.
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testes
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Male organs that manufacture sperm.
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chromosome
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A threadlike strand of DNA located in the nucleus of every cell that carries the genes, which transmit hereditary information.
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DNA
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The material formed by genes that makes up chromosome, which bear our hereditary characteristics.
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gene
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A segment of DNA that contains a chemical blueprint for manufacturing a particular protein.
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germinal
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The first 14 days of prenatal development, from fertizliation to full implantation.
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zygote
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A fertilized ovum.
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blastocyst
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The hollow sphere of cells formed during the germinal stage in preparation for implantation.
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implantation
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The process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
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placenta
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The structure projecting from the wall of the uterus during pregnancy through which the developing baby absorbs nutrients.
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embryonic
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The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from week 3 through week 8.
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neural tube
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A cylindrical structure that forms along the back of the embryo and develops into the brain and spinal cord.
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neuron
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A nerve cell.
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proximodistal (proximo = near, distal = far)
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The developmental principle that growth occurs from the most interior parts of the body outward.
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cephalocaudal (cephalo = head, caudal = tail)
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The developmental principle that growth occurs in a sequence from head to toe.
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mass-to-specific
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The developmental principle that large structures (and movements) precede increasingly detailed refinements.
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fetal
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The final period of prenatal development, lasting seven months, characterized by physical refinements, massive growth, and the development of the brain.
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age of viability
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The earliest point at which a baby can survive outside the womb.
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umbillical cord
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The structure that attaches the placenta to the fetus, through which nutrients are passed and fetal wastes are removed.
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amniotic sac
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A bag-shaped, fluid filled membrane that contains and insulates the fetus.
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gestation
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The period of pregnancy.
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trimester
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One of the 3 month long segments into which pregnancy is divided.
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miscarriage
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The naturally occurring loss of a pregnancy and death of the fetus.
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quickening
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A pregnant woman’s first feeling of the fetus moving inside her body.
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birth defect
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A physical or neurological problem that occurs prenatally or at birth.
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teratogen
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A substance that crosses the placenta and harms the fetus.
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embryonic
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The time when a body structure is most vulnerable to damage by a teratogen, typically when that organ or process is rapidly developing or coming \”on line.\” \”Most Sensitive state\”
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developmental disorders
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Learning impairments and behavioral problems during infancy and childhood.
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fetal alcohol syndrome
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A cluster of birth defects caused by the mother’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
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Down syndrome
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The most common chromosomal abnormality, causing mental retardation, susceptibility to heart disease, and other health problems; and distinctive physical characteristics, such as slanted eyes and stocky build.
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single-gene disorder
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An illness caused by a single gene.
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dominant disorder
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An illness that a child gets by inheriting one copy of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
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recessive disorder
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An illness that a child gets by inheriting two copies of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
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sex-linked disorder
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An illness, carried on the mother’s X chromosome, that typically leaves the female offspring unaffected but has a fifty-fifty chance of striking each male child.
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genetic testing
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A blood test to determine whether a person carries the gene for a given genetic disorder.
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genetic counselor
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A professional who counsels parents-to-be about their own or their children’s risk of developing genetic disorders, as well as about available treatments.
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ultrasound
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In pregnancy, an image of the fetus in the womb that helps to date the pregnancy, assess the fetus’ growth and identify abnormalities.
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chorionic villus sampling
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A relatively risky first-trimester pregnancy test for fetal genetic information.
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amniocentesis
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A second trimester procedure. A technique by which a small amount of the fluid that surrounds a developing baby is removed; the fluid is analyzed to determine whether the baby will have a genetic disorder.
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infertility
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The inability to fertilize or pregnant
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assisted reproductive technology
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A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
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in vitro fertilization
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Morally objectionable fertility technique of fertilizing a woman’s egg with a man’s sperm in the laboratory and then implanting the fertilized egg into a woman’s uterus.
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natural childbirth
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Give birth from the womb, with medical treatment only help to sooth the pain.
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cesarean section
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A method of delivering a baby surgically, by an incision in the abdomen
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Apgar scale
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Assess newborn’s health. (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration) > 7 is in good shape
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low birth weight
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What compromise newborn Development?
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very low birth weight
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Infants with this are most apt to have enduring problems and need careful monitoring at the Neonatal intensive care unit during their early weeks or months of life.
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neonatal
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Department for nursing newborn and infants.
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crowning
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When baby’s scalp (Skin covered head, excluding face) appears
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efface
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Uterus thin out
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dilate
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Uterus widen from a tiny gap about the size of a dime to the width of a coffee mug or a medium-sized bowl of soup
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contraction
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Muscular, wavelike batterings against the uterine floor
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Lifespan developmentalists or developmental scientists are: a) mainly researchers. b) researchers and practitioners from a variety of disciplines. c) mainly psychologists. d) mainly practitioners.
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b) researchers and practitioners from a variety of disciplines.
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Which stage of human development didn’t really exist as a defined life stage until the 20th century? a) old age b) adolescence c) infancy d) childhood
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b) adolescence
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Your fifty-fifty chance at birth of living to a given age is called your: a) medium lifespan. b) average life expectancy. c) twentieth-century life expectancy revolution. d) maximum lifespan.
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b) average life expectancy
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Who is undergoing a normative transition in the U.S. at this time in history? a) Michael, who is entering law school at the age of 58. b) George, who is getting married for the third time at the age of 24. c) Melinda, who is getting married for the first time at the age of 25. d) Therese, who is having her first child at age 16.
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c) Melinda, who is getting married for the first time at the age of 25.
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A culture that values social harmony over individual achievement is called: a) collectivist. b) individualistic. c) developed. d) developing.
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a) collectivist.
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Which statement about men versus women is true? a) Men are more physiologically \”hardy\” than women. b) Men are healthier than women. c) Women are more fragile physically than men. d) Women outlive men by more than 4 years.
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d) Women outlive men by more than 4 years.
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According to traditional behaviorists, all of our voluntary actions are determined by: a) operant conditioning. b) classical conditioning. c) social learning theory. d) attachment theory.
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a) operant conditioning.
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Cognitive behaviorists/social learning theorists believe in which principle? a) learning through observation b) attachment c) genetics d) operant conditioning
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a) learning through observation
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Dr. Styler studies universal human tendencies that we all share, speculating that these are biological predispositions that helped promote human survival. Dr. Syler is a(n): a) traditional behaviorist. b) cognitive behaviorist. c) behavioral genetics researcher. d) evolutionary psychologist.
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d) evolutionary psychologist.
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Our built-in temperamental tendencies tend to naturally cause people to act towards us in specific ways. The term for this nature/nurture interaction is: a) evocative forces. b) unidirectional forces. c) latent forces. d) heritability.
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a) evocative forces.
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Our genetic tendencies shape the environments we are exposed to during life. The two terms explaining the different ways \”nature shapes nurture\” are ______ and ______ forces. a) evocative; active b) interactive; disjunctive c) evocative; reactive d) reactive; proactive
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a) evocative; active
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Behaviorists emphasize the crucial role of ______ on behavior. a) environmental influences b) genetic influences c) cognitive processes d) normative and non-normative influences
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a) environmental influences
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Cassie is conducting a study charting the relationship between depression and anxiety. Cassie is doing ______ research. a) experimental b) correlational c) causal d) unidirectional
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b) correlational
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When we test groups of people and use numerical scales and statistics we are conducting: a) interview research. b) naturalistic observation. c) qualitative research. d) quantitative research.
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quantitative research.
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The almond-shaped organ(s) where the ova reside is/are called the: a) ovaries. b) fallopian tubes. c) cervix. d) uterus.
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a) ovaries.
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Also known as ______, this process involves the union of a sperm and an egg. a) ovulation b) hormonal balancing c) fertilization d) cervical fluid
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c) fertilization
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Which of the following is true of our chromosomes? a) Some normally developing humans have fewer or more than 46 chromosomes. b) Each human being has an identical number of paired chromosomes one contributed by our mother and the other contributed by our father. c) The mother contributes most of the chromosomes to the baby. d) Each chromosome pair is a perfect match, even the chromosomes that determine our gender.
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b) Each human being has an identical number of paired chromosomes one contributed by our mother and the other contributed by our father.
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The first two weeks of prenatal development, from fertilization to implantation, is called the ______ stage. a) fetal b) germinal c) placental d) embryonic
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b) germinal
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A developing baby absorbs nutrients through the ________, which is a structure projecting from the wall of the uterus during pregnancy. a) placenta b) cervix c) ovum d) blastocyst
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a) placenta
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The cylindrical structure that will eventually develop into the brain is called the: a) celphalocaudal tube. b) couvade. c) neural tube. d) blastocyst.
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c) neural tube.
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\”Prenatal growth occurs from the most interior parts of the body outward.\” The name of this prenatal principle is the: a) mass to specific sequence. b) proximodistal sequence. c) viability sequence. d) cephalocaudal sequence.
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b) proximodistal sequence.
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Karen is giving her newborn a bath. She is cleaning the baby’s belly button, which is where the ______ used to provide nutrients to her baby prenatally was located. a) neurons b) blastocyst c) amniotic sac d) umbilical cord
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d) umbilical cord
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Mrs. Nelson is 28 weeks pregnant. While she reports feeling \”great,\” her husband has been complaining of symptoms typical of morning sickness. Her husband is suffering from: a) gestational diabetes. b) teratogen. c) couvade. d) pregnancy.
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c) couvade.
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All of the following characterize morning sickness EXCEPT: a) it often involves queasiness that can occur on and off all day. b) it may be a built in evolutionary mechanism keeping pregnant women from eating spoiled foods. c) it happens only in the morning. d) it tends to occur just during the first trimester.
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c) it happens only in the morning
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What is the MOST important force determining the emotional quality of pregnancy? a) feeling cared about and loved b) getting adequate prenatal care c) being affluent d) having the child’s father around
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a) feeling cared about and loved
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Exposure to harmful substances called teratogens can affect the developing brain: a) only before a woman knows she is pregnant. b) only during the first trimester. c) usually never; the baby is immune to what the mother is exposed to. d) throughout pregnancy—as the brain is developing in the second and third trimesters.
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d) throughout pregnancy—as the brain is developing in the second and third trimesters.
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The first stage of labor, when the cervix widens enough to allow the baby to emerge is called: a) expulsion. b) crowning. c) dilation and effacement. d) delivery.
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c) dilation and effacement.
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Rachel was born just one hour ago. She has already been given the following health evaluation: a) the neonatal intensive care. b) the Apgar scale. c) the PKU scale. d) the viability scale.
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b) the Apgar scale.
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The pear-shaped muscular organ in a woman’s abdomen that houses a developing baby is called the: a) cervix. b) uterus. c) fallopian tube. d) ovum.
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b) uterus.
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Jeanine has had surgery on the pair of slim, pipe-like structures that connect her ovaries with her uterus. Jeanine has had surgery on her: a) fallopian tubes. b) ovaries. c) uterus. d) ovums.
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a) fallopian tubes.
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The male structure called the ______ is comparable to the ovaries in females. a) testes b) sperm c) penis d) hormones
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a) testes
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At conception, there are ______ males than females; at birth, however, there are ______ males than females. a) 20% more; 5% more b) 20% fewer; 5% more c) 20% more; 5% fewer d) 20% fewer; 5% fewer
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a) 20% more; 5% more
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Implantation is the: a) fertilization of the egg. b) time during which all major organs of the fetus are constructed. c) process of sperm penetrating the egg lining and burrowing in. d) process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
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d) process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
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The embryonic period of development lasts for about _____ weeks. a) 2 b) 6 c) 15 d) 24
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b) 6
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The proximodistal sequence of development refers to the fact that growth occurs from: a) the extremities towards the trunk of the body. b) large structures to smaller structures. c) the most interior parts of the body outward. d) head to tail (top to bottom).
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b) large structures to smaller structures.
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The fluid-filled chamber which provides a \”home\” for the developing fetus and insulation from infection and harm is called the: a) amniotic sac. b) umbilical cord. c) placenta. d) neural tube.
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a) amniotic sac.
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Martha is about 18 weeks pregnant and has begun to experience the sensation known as \”quickening.\” Martha is feeling: a) gas pains. b) false labor. c) the fetus moving inside the womb. d) heartburn.
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c) the fetus moving inside the womb.
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Research explores the long-term effects of pregnancy traumas on babies’ later development is called: a) fetal programming research. b) intrauterine research. c) prenatal research. d) teratogen research.
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a) fetal programming research.
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Exposure to harmful substances is most likely to cause major structural damage to a fetus during the ______ stage of development. a) embryonic b) fetal c) germinal d) post-partum
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a) embryonic
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The most common chromosomal abnormality is: a) sickle cell anemia. b) Huntington’s disease. c) Tay-Sachs disease. d) Down syndrome.
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d) Down syndrome.
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Jesse’s wife is in the second stage of labor, when he notices the scalp of the baby for the first time. Jesse’s baby is: a) crowning. b) dilating. c) effacing. d) contracting.
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b) dilating.
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A preterm baby has arrived in the world more than: a) two days early. b) one week early. c) two weeks early. d) three weeks early.
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d) three weeks early.
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Infant mortality is a term that refers to deaths that occur within the ______ of life. a) first day b) first month c) first year d) first 2 years
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c) first year

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