Experience Psychology Chapter 7

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What happens on Stage 0 Sleep?
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Muscles- began to relax Breathing-goes down Brain Waves- Alpha (conscious but relax).
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What happens in Stage 1 Sleep?
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You relax more deeply, your alpha are replace by irregular waves and you began to sleep.
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What happens in Stage 2 Sleep?
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Show sleep spindles.
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What are Sleep Spindles?
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Bursts of brain waves that occur around 13-16 times per second.
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What happens in Stage 3 Sleep? (The transition)
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Your brain waves slow down and the sleep spindles disappear.
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What happens in Stage 4 Sleep?
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Deep sleep, your brain shows delta waves. After stage 4, you go back to stage 3, then 2,then 1.
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What are Delta waves?
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Large, slow brain waves of about 4 cycles per second.
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What happens in Stage 1-REM Sleep?
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REM(rapid eye movement) is also called \”paradoxical\” sleep, this is where we do most of our dreaming.
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What do the beta waves indicate?
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The pattern of the first sleep cycle, you show beta waves also called activity pattern.
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How long is the first, complete sleep cycle?
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Avg. about 90 min.
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How do later sleep cycles differ from the first one?
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1st Cycle, only one with stage 0 and 1 & the shortest REM. 2nd Cycle, the REM last 40 min. 9th Cycle, the stage 4 gets longer.
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How many sleep cycles do you typically have in a night?
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4-5 cycles at night in like 6 hours.
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How do your eyes move during REM sleep, and does this relate to dream recall?
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The eyes move rapidly in short verse of activity that last from few seconds to couple minutes. Up to 5 min w/ no activity.
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What else happens to most men and women in REM sleep?
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At the beginning of REM sleep males experience erection and females vaginal swelling.
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When does dreaming occur?
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Can take place during any stage of sleep, must take place in REM sleep.
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How does dreaming change as the night progresses?
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At the beginning your dream tend to be related to the things you did during the day, as the night goes on, your dreams become more vivid.
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How often do people dream, and when?
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Everybody dream every night in every REM period.
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How long are your dreams?
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From few secs. To couple mins.
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How many dreams do you usually have during each REM period?
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We have a series of related dreams or several dreams.
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Which hemisphere of the brain seems to control most dreaming, and how we know this?
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The Right Hemisphere. Low verbal content and high emotional content.
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What are you voluntary muscles?
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You decide how and to move your muscles.
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What happens to them during REM sleep and dreaming, and why?
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Your muscles are paralyze to keep you from acting. You sleep walk in stage 4
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What are the effects of sleep deprivation in humans?
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*One night- not going to affect a lot. *Over 48 hours-impulsive & irrelevant, poor judgment and decision. *100 hours or more-suffer from confusion and don’t care, act mentally ill, symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia.
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What is a Pavor Nocturnicus?
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Night terror.
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What are Anxiety Nightmares?
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Is a different type of nightmare, a dream that is constant.
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When do Anxiety Nightmares take place?
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It can take place in any stage, usually in REM sleep.
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How do Anxiety Nightmares differ from a pavor nocturnicus?
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Anxiety Nightmares can kill you, the anxiety increases the heart rate and can cause a heart attack.
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What is a DRUG?
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Any chemical substance which,when taken in relatively small amounts, significantly increases or decreases cellular activities somewhere in your body.
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What are STIMULANTS?
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Drugs that increase neural firing, making you physically and/or mentally more active, they speed up the fire system.
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What is the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
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The part of your nervous system the controls automatic, involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, digestion,etc.
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What can AMPHETAMINES cause?
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Behavior symptoms like sleep deprivation & schizophrenia.
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What are DEPRESSANTS?
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Drugs that slow down or inhibit neural firing.
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What are TRANQUILIZERS?
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Drugs that help people relax and become less afraid of things.
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What is aspirin?
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The most used analgesic worldwide.
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What is an ANALGESIC?
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Is a pain relief.
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What does SYNTHESIZE?
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It means man made.
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How safe is aspirin?
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Also has bad effects.
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What are OPIATES?
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Narcotic drugs derived from the opium poppy. Is a powerful pain killer that had been used in centuries.
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What is MORPHINE?
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A powerful analgesic synthesized from opium.
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What are ENDORPHINS and how powerful can they be?
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Natural pain killer produced by your brain, can be powerful as morphine.
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How do morphine and other opiates affect endorphins, and what is the result?
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Brain is going to identify the morphine to fight the pain. It cuts back on the amount of endorphins that produces. Causes the endorphin to slow down and you are going to fight the pain by your own.
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What is HEROIN?
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Addictive used as the substitute of morphine.
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What is NITROUS OXIDE?
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(Laughing gas) used to relax you, not a pain killer. Used by dentists and surgeons. The effects are unpredictable.
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What is COCAINE?
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A local anesthetic made from the leaves of the coca plant, that kills pain by inhibiting neural transmission in the area where it is injected or put.
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What is a PLACEBO?
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A neural, harmless substance or treatment given to subjects or patients to make them think they are getting the real thing.
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What are HALLUCINOGENS?
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Drugs that disrupt your perceptions by scrambling your processing of sensory input.
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What is LSD?
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A strong synthetic hallucinogen. It s Was discovered by accident in 1943 by a scientist from Switzerland. It is medically used.
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Where does MARIJUANA come from?
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It comes from cannabis plant, a weed.
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When did marijuana become illegal?
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In 1937, 87 years ago.
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How does marijuana works?
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* In small doses-a pleasant mood change. * In large doses-mild hallucinations and paranoia. * In extreme amounts-vomiting, chills, fever, hallucinations and loss of control.
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What is currently the most abused drug?
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Alcohol is the most abused drug.
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What is the biggest effect that alcohol has on the brain?
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It destroys brain tissue in the dominant hemisphere.

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