HBS EOC Study Guide Unit 1

Anterior
Front

Posterior
Back

Ventral
Front

Dorsal
Back

Superior
Higher

Inferior
Lower

Lateral
Away from midline

Medial
Toward midline

Proximal
On limb, nearer to attachment point

Distal
On limb, farther from attachment point

Superficial
Above
More external surface of body

Deep
Mote internal

Common features human share
-4tissue types
-23 pairs of chromosome
-206 bones
-DNA
-Bipedal
-Opposable thumbs
-highly evolved brain
-24 ribs
-4 chambered heart

Epithelial tissue
-Forms lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body
-cells packed tightly together

Connective tissue
-Protects, supports, and binds together other body tissue
-consistent matrix allows to to fill spaces

Muscle tissue
-Specialized to contract and cause movement
-skeletal muscle
-cardiac muscle
-smooth muscle

Nervous tissue
-Composed of neurons that send and receive electrical signals in the body
-responds to stimuli and transmit impulses
-brain, spinal cord, nerves

Determine gender using skull or pelvis for female
-Round eye sockets
-V-shaped mandible
-Smoother bones
-rounded pelvis
-wider pubic arch

Determine gender using skull or pelvis for male
-square eye
-U-shaped mandible
-brow ridges,sharped
-heart shaped pelvis
-angled in coccyx

Structure and function of Deoxyribonucleic acid
-Deoxyribose: sugar in it made up of building blocks of nucleic acid
-double stranded helical molecule made of chromosomes in nucleus
-DNA makes up genes
-Genes make up chromosomes
-Each gene codes for a protein which determines trait

How does DNA differ from person to person
-99.9% matches of every person
-determined by nucleotides

Different biometrics for verification

Compare DNA of two people
-scientists perform polymerase chain reaction
-amplify making the sample bigger than original
-Cut DNA with restriction enzymes
-Run through gel electrophoresis to analyze size of each fragment
-Restriction enzyme will cut each persons DNA in a different place
-Restriction fragment length polymerase will look different

Restriction enzymes
-Mostly come from bacteria
-Chemicals in it break down DNA of invading viruses
-Used for cutting DNA into smaller fragments(RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism
-Bit of DNA after the long strand has been cut by restriction enzyme
-Seen through electrophoresis gel

Gel electrophoresis
-To carry across with electricity
-DNA has (-) charge so they’re attracted to (+) charge
-Samples are placed in wells within agarose gel near a (-) electrode
-When turned on, they move toward the (+) electrode
-Bit get separated by size making it possible to tell people apart

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