Exam 4 – Psych

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Professional athletes perform better before an audience than when alone, this best illustrates
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Social facilitation
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Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
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Visual perception
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Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
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Conformity
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A token economy represents an application of the principles of
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Operant conditioning
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Although Shawn felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was muchhappier by the time he had completed therapy. It would be reasonable to attribute some of his improvement to
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Regression toward the mean
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Mental health worked label behavior as disordered when it is
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Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
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When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom, this best illustrates the dangers of
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Self-fulfilling prophecies
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Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers’ cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into \”real racing machines.\” When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of
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Mania
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Felippe, a 19 year old university freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. Research suggest that he would be most likely to develop a close friendship with
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Toren, who is talkative and assertive
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The placebo effect refers to
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The beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective
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Obsessions are
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Offensive and unwanted thought that persistently preoccupy a person
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According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
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Even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can be agents of destruction
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Carl rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ___ during the process of therapy
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Genuinely express their own feelings
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A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
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Uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
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Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
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Psychoanalysis
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About eight months ago, 14 year old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from
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Anorexia
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Systematic desensitization involves
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Associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety arousing stimuli
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In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed order to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
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They perceive their order to come from legitimate authority figures
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The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ___ and over estimate the impact of ___ inexplaining the behavior of others
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Situational influences, personal disposition
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends, this behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
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Preventing her from functioning effectively
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Instead of focusing on unconscious and repressed thoughts and impulses, ___ therapies focus on conscious thoughts and self-perceptions
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Humanistic
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Carol is restless during class because her professor’s distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because she sees Carol’s restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both students and professor should be informed of the dangers of
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The fundamental attribution error
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In Milgrams obedience experiments, \”teachers\” were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when
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The learner was placed in a different room than the teacher
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Suicide rates in the US are ___ among whites than blacks and ___ among men than women
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Higher, higher
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Solom Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgement of the length of lines
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Even when the group judgement was clearly incorrect
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Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
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A phobia
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Training people to actively dispute their own self-defeating idea best illustrates
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Cognitive therapy
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Alex thinks smoking is addictive but other players on his hockey team insist that it’s not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
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He feels insecure about his role
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An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by god for their sins is best explained in terms of
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The just-world phenomenon
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Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of
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Agoraphobia
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The foot-in-door- phenomenon refers to the tendency to
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Comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
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Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
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\”WE all seem to be in a basic agreement\”
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Delusions of the following comments is most common among those with ___ schizophrenia
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Paranoid
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Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
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Deliver electric shocks
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In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that causes nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
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Aversive conditioning
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Normative social influence results from people’s desire to
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Gain social approval
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Clinicians diagnose the presence of personality disorder using __ of the DSM-IV-TR
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Axis 2
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The discomfort we feel when two thought are inconsistent is called
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Cognitive dissonance
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Rishi, a college student complains he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
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Generalized anxiety disorder
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Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring and socially maladaptive behavior patterns are called ___ disorders
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Personality
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Blindfolded university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
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Social loafing
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One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
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An expressionless face
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Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
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PTSD
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Most combat stressed veterans do not later exhibit post traumatic stress disorder. This best illustrates
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Resilience
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Which perspective suggest that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?
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Social-cognitive
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The onset of schizophrenia is typically associated with early
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Adulthood
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The DSM-5 is most likely to be criticized for
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Classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors
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Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgrams initial obedience experiment because
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The teachers were more obedient than most people
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Professor Pott emphasized the normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates the ____ perspective
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Evolutionary
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Phil zimbadro devised a stimulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
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Role playing on attitudes

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