EXAM 3 Notes

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bisexuality
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Sexual attraction to both men and women.
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asexuality
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A lack of sexual attraction to either sex.
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sexual orientation
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Sexual attraction to one’s own sex (homosexual), to the other-sex (heterosexual), or to both sexes (bisexual), or lack of sexual interest in either ;sex (\”asexual):
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heteroflexibility
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individuals who are primarily heterosexual and have some degree of sexual interest in and/or experience with the same sex.
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homoflexibility
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individuals who are primarily homosexual and have some degree of sexual interest in and/or experience with the other sex.
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sexual fluidity
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Variability in same-sex and other-sex attraction and involvement at different times and in different situations through out the life span.
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gender nonconformity
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A lack of conformity to stereotypical masculine and feminine behaviors.
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gay-affirmative therapy
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therapy to help homosexual clients cope with negative societal attitudes
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conversion therapy/sexual reorientation therapy
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Therapy to help homosexual men and women change their sexual orientation.
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homophobia
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irrational fears of homosexuality, the fear of the possibility of homosexuality in oneself, or loathing toward one’s own homosexuality.
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coming out
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The process of becoming aware of and disclosing one’s homosexual identity
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passing
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Presenting a false image of being heterosexual
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puberty
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A period of rapid physical changes in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs mature.
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gonadotropins
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pituitary hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads (testes and ovaries).
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secondary sex characteristics
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genital development that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice.
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noncoital sex
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Physical contact, including kissing, touching, and manual or oral-genital stimulation-but excluding coitus
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multi-person sex (MPS)
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Adolescent sexual interaction involving multiple simultaneous partners that may be either consensual or forced
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cohabitation
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Living together and having a sexual relationship without being married
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domestic partnership
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An unmarried couple living in the same household in a committed relationship.
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matriarchal society
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A society in which women carry the family name through the generations, and women govern the economic and social affairs of the community.
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nonmonogamy
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Sexual interaction outside a couple relationship.
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consensual extramarital relationship
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A sexual relationship that occurs outside the marriage bond with the consent of one’s spouse.
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swinging
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The exchange of marital partners for sexual interaction.
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open marriage
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A marriage in which spouses, with each other’s permission, have intimate relationships with other people as well as with the marital partner
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polyamory
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Multiple consensual sexual relationships of trios, groups of couples, and intentionally created families that emphasize emotional commitment
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nonconsensual extramarital sex
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Sexual interaction in which a married person engages in an outside sexual relationship without the consent (or, presumably, the knowledge) of his or her spouse.
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hypoactive sexual desire disorder
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Lack of interest prior to and during sexual activity
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sexual aversion disorder
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Extreme and irrational fear of sexual activity.
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female genital sexual arousal disorder
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Persistent inability to attain or maintain the lubrication-swelling response
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female subjective sexual arousal disorder
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Absent or diminished awareness of physical arousal
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combined genital and subjective sexual arousal disorder
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Absent or diminished subjective and physical sexual arousal.
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persistent genital arousal disorder
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Spontaneous, intrusive, and unwanted genital arousal
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erectile disorder (ED)
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Consistent or recurring lack of an erection sufficiently rigid for penetrative sex tor a period of at least 3 months.
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female orgasmic disorder
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The absence, marked delay, or diminished intensity of orgasm
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male orgasmic disorder
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The inability of a man to ejaculate during sexual stimulation from his partner
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premature ejaculation (PE)
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A pattern of ejaculations within 1 minute and an inability to delay ejaculation, resulting in a man’s impairing his or his partner’s pleasure.
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dyspareunia
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Pain or physical discomfort during sexual intercourse.
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Peyronie’s disease
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Abnormal fibrous tissue and calcium deposits in the penis.
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Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder
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Pain with partial vaginal entry, during intercourse, and after intercourse.
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vestibulodynia
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A small area at the entrance of the vagina that causes severe pain
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vaginismus
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involuntary spasmodic contractions of of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina.
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sensate focus
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A process of touching and communication used to enhance sexual pleasure and to reduce performance pressure
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stop-start technique
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A treatment technique for premature ejaculation, consisting of stimulating the penis to the point of impending orgasm and then stopping until the preejaculatory sensations subside
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Define love
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-Special kind of attitude -Has strong emotional and behavioral components -Is a phenomena that eludes easy definition and explanation
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Know when passionate love typically occurs?
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Early in the relationship
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What are the three components of Sternberg’s theory of love?
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-Passion -Intimacy -Commitment
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What type of love is Sternberg referring to when he explains how we feel toward casual acquaintances?
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Non love
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What type of love experience best describes this scenario according to Sternberg? \”The physical chemistry that existed when Linh and Bryan met was overwhelming for both of them. They enjoyed the sexual energy in their relationship and are becoming more intimate. Neither one is discussing long-term plans or commitments, as they both wish to pursue their education and careers.\”
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Romantic Love
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According to Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, ____ declines in a relationship whereas _____ builds gradually over time
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Passion declines, intimacy builds
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Define consumate love
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-Passion -Intimacy -Commitment
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Know what type of drug the neurotransmitters are related to with the high associated with passionate love?
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Amphetamines
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Define or explain the mere exposure effect
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Constant or repeated exposure to a person who lives or works with you tend to find more appealing
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Be familiar with the role of physical attractiveness in mate selection
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-It may be important to men because it’s an indicator or good healthy and reproductive value -Sociobiology theory has been used to explain the importance for men of physical attractiveness -Men in all cultures have placed greater emphasis on attractiveness than women
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In the studies done by Mary Ainsworth, what did she discover about infants who were securely attached?
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Securely attached infants used their mothers as a safe base while expiring their environments
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How would you categorize the children who displayed insecure attachments?
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Children who display insecure attachments might be categorized as either avoidant or anxious ambivalent
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Know which type of relationship would an individual involved be MOST likely to separate sex and love: Lesbian pair, a gay male pair, a cohabiting heterosexual couple, or a married heterosexual couple?
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Gay male pair
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How do men deal with jealous feelings?
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They deny them
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Be familiar with the (3) frequent reasons for success of a married couple found in a survey of 300 happily married couples
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1. Partner is best friend 2. Recognize that marriage is a long term commitment 3. Partner has grown more interesting over time
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A lasting love relationship requires…
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Frequent positive interaction
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Be able to name some obstacles to effective communication about sex
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-anxiety -lack of language for sex -differences in their ability to intimately communicate
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People who respond to conversation by staring into space, perhaps murmuring an \”uh-huh\” now and then, are called ___; people who respond by making brief comments, asking questions and changing their facial expressions are called ___.
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passive listeners, active listeners
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What is expressing unconditional positive regard?
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When we value our partners regardless of what they say or do
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If you are the recipient of mixed messages what should you do?
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Discuss your confusion with your partner in hopes that he or she will clarify his or her intentions
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Identify the two types of celibacy
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Partial & Complete
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Why did John Harvey Kellogg develop the corn flake?
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Decrease masturbation
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What is another term for nocturnal orgasm?
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Wet dreams
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Men are more likely to have ____ fantasies; women are more likely to have ____ fantasies.
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Men- domination, Women- submission
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What did the European physical Tissot believe about masturbation?
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Masturbation was debilitating to your health
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What did social and medical attitudes towards masturbation during the early nineteen hundreds describe ‘symptoms’ of masturbation as?
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-general debility -sore eyes and blindness -stupidity -loss of energy -insanity
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What does the Maltz hierarchy of sexual interactions clarify?
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Clarifies the degree to which sexual energy is positively or negatively expressed
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A 1998 survey found that the average sexual frequency for people in the United States is ____ time(s) per week with each episode lasting about ___ minutes.
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1 time per week, 30 minutes
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What did the classic Harlow and Harlow study demonstrate happened when baby monkeys were denied physical contact with their mothers?
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They were extremely maladjusted
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How does Tantric sex differ from the way that many North Americans think about intercourse?
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Orgasm is not always the goal
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Be familiar with the term \”gay\”
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-It has come into a common usage among teens -Was used as a codeword amount homosexuals to refer to themselves -it may have political and social implications
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How can you best evaluate sexual orientation?
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Observing a person’s patterns and sexual thoughts and behaviors over a lifetime
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Be familiar with the general characteristics of lesbians
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The majority of lesbians have had sexual relationships with men
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What did Bailey et al. find in a study of 1,538 twins?
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Strong evidence of a genetic component to sexual orientation in individuals
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What did research on the relative length of index to ring finger find about lesbians?
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Has been found that lesbian finger lengths more like the typical male pattern than heterosexual females
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Be familiar with the current views toward homosexuality within Christianity
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There is much controversy within the Christian denominations regarding homosexuality
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Be able to describe the historical attitudes towards homosexuality in a chronological sequence
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1. Sin 2. Illness 3. Alternate sexual orientations
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Telling \”queer\” jokes and/or avoiding any behavior that might be interpreted as homosexual are often manifestations of ____?
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Homophobia
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Know some ways that we can change homophobic attitudes
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Attending a theater performance in which the two lead male characters engage in cross-dressing
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Be familiar with hate crimes
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Because of the federal laws, states do not need to pass hate-crimes laws
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According to your text, how can attitudes toward homosexuality change?
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Deliberate effort, experience, and education
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Be familiar with some examples of recent positive movie portrayals of homosexuality?
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Brokeback mountain, In and Out, and Philadelphia
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You see a man who wears tight, flashy clothing and has exaggerated, somewhat effeminate gestures. How would you describe that man?
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There is no way of knowing the man’s sexual orientation based on the above information
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What does it mean when a lesbian tells her family that she is \”coming out\”?
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She is accepting and openly acknowledging her homosexual identity
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What does PFLAG mean?
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Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays
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Which of the following ethnic group tends to be MORE tolerant of homosexuality?
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Native Americans
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Be familiar with the homosexual community
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-The metropolitan community church is a widespread religious organization for gay people -There are entire retirement communities for older gays and lesbians -Gay and lesbian bars have served as an important function for psychologically safe socializing
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What is the MOST important factor in a love relationship for both males and females, homosexual and heterosexual?
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Talking about intimate feelings
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Approximately ___% of lesbian couples and ___% of gay couples are raising children
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33% of lesbians, 22% of gays
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What does the current research show about the children of gay and lesbian parents?
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They are likely to grow up to be heterosexual
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In infancy and childhood, ________
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many experiences of this time have great impact on future expression of adult sexuality
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Psychologists emphasize the importance of being touched and held in early childhood, This is commonly referred to as ________
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contact comfort
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In one study of 49 societies, in cultures where children were nurtured with physical affection ________
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there were few instances of adult violence
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During childhood, ________
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responses to the child’s expressions of affection help shape the way sexuality is expressed later in life
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Which of the following statements is false
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Most young boys learn about masturbation from self-exploration.
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Friedrich and colleagues’ interview study of mothers identified ________ as behaviors that occurred most frequently among children
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touching breasts, self-stimulation, and exhibitionism
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Which one is not true of childhood sex play
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Those who are brighter engage in sex play less often.
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Which of the following statements regarding sex play with same-sex friends during childhood is false
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Parents are advised to discourage this behavior as it may \”set the stage\” for a homosexual orientation.
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Tony and Tina are 13-year-old twins, They are both starting to grow hair under their arms, Tina is developing breast buds, and Tony’s voice cracks on occasion
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These are all examples of ________.secondary sex characteristics
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The earliest signs of puberty for a girl are ________
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breast budding and growth of pubic hair
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The first menstrual period is called ________
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menarche
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The first ejaculation in boys ________
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occurs when the prostate and seminal vesicles begin functioning
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The initial appearance of sperm in the ejaculate typically occurs at about age ________
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14
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Which of the following best describes how boy-girl friendships are likely to change in adolescence
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They are likely to become more homosocial for a brief period and then more heterosocial.
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Which statement below best illustrates the effect of the sexual double standard on adolescents
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Steve brags to his male friends about the kind of sex he and his girlfriend have; Emily tells her friends little about sex with Steve, fearing they’ll think she’s a slut.
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Which of the following statements is true regarding masturbation during adolescence
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It increases in frequency in both sexes, but more boys engage in it than girls.
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Recent studies indicate that the incidence of oral sex among teenagers has ________
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increased significantly
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In regard to teen sexual relationships which of the following is true
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Females seem to be more comfortable with having sex with someone they feel affection for rather than \”saving themselves.\”
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Which of the following statements best summarizes the rate of adolescent coital activity over the last five decades
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It has increased over time, and then leveled off within the past decade; however, it has increased among very young teenagers.
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In the NHSLS study, what percentage of men and women had their first intercourse experience on their wedding night
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7% of men; 21% of women
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According to the NHSLS study, ________ was the most common reason reported by women for having first intercourse and ________ was the most common reason reported by men
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affection for partner; curiosity and readiness for sex
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Several studies indicate that ________% of girls and ________% of boys report having experienced same-sex contact during adolescence
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6-11; 11-14
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Which of the following statements is true
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Most adolescents are adequately informed about AIDS but continue to engage in high-risk behavior because they don’t believe it will affect them.
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The rate of teen pregnancy in the United States ________
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is the highest in the Western world
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Of the teenage pregnancies each year in the United States how many end in live births
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one-half
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Ineffective usage or non-usage of contraception has been associated with all but which one of the following
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high self-esteem
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Which of the following is least likely to contribute to the increase in the number of single adults
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an increase in the influence of religion
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Which of the following is the best example of serial monogamy
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a single person who has a succession of sexually exclusive relationships
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Which one is not true of cohabitation
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Many cohabiting couples are waiting to marry until after they have a child.
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Statistics demonstrate that approximately ________ percent of adults in the United States marry
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90
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Traditionally, a primary function of marriage has been to ________
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provide a stable economic unit in which to raise children
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When Gottman’s team videotaped married couples resolving conflict, they identified all of the following patterns as predictors of marital dissatisfaction and separation except ________
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verbal expressions of anger
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Which of the following is the best predictor of marital satisfaction
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moments of support, kindness, passion, and mutual pleasure that far outweigh moments of disgust, criticism, defensiveness, and anger
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When compared with Kinsey’s research findings, contemporary American married men and women appear to be ________
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experiencing a wider repertoire of sexual behavior
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Gottman’s research found that the most important factor in marital satisfaction is ________
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the quality of their friendship
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All of the following were cited by the authors as reasons for engaging in nonconsensual extramarital sex except ________
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a manifestation of sexual addiction
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With respect to extramarital sex, NHSLS data reveal that ________
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there are no sex differences, in terms of extramarital sex, when men and women are matched for sexual attitudes and interest
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Which of the following behaviors represents a kind of consensual extramarital relationship
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swinging
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In regard to divorce statistics, which of the following statements is false
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The fact that about half of all marriages will end in divorce is a sign of the societal rejection of the institution of marriage.
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All of the following are given as reasons for the high divorce rate in the United States except ________
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decreasing expectations for marriage to provide sexual and emotional fulfillment
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Which of the following best summarizes men’s and women’s perceptions regarding the cause of their divorces
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Women are more likely to report that their husband’s problematic behavior led to the divorce; men are more likely to say they don’t know what led to the divorce.
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Some cartoons that have appeared in Playboy magazine depict an old wrinkled woman who is constantly attempting to contrive situations with various men that will enable her to have sex with them, Many people find this amusing because ________
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older women in our culture are not supposed to be interested in sex and, even when they are, no one supposedly would be interested in having sex with them because of their age
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The double standard of aging is reflected in the pairing of ________
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powerful, older men and young, beautiful women
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All of the following are factors influencing sexual activity in later years except ________
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religious background
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Which of the following statements regarding sexuality and aging is false
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The older generation rarely uses such things as vibrators, or sexually explicit materials.
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Which of the following statements regarding sexuality and aging is false
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It is extremely rare for new sexual relationships to begin in later adulthood, i.e., over 65.
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Which of the following is an example of how androgyny expresses itself in later years
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Women become more assertive while men become more expressive.
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Historically, it was common to view the period between birth and puberty as a time when sexuality doesn’t exist
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True
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About one-third of females and two-thirds of males report having masturbated prior to adolescence
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True
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Self-discovery and homosocial peer interactions should be limited during childhood
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False
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Secondary sex characteristics are those present at birth and primary sex characteristics develop at puberty
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False
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When same-sex contact occurs during adolescence, it is usually between an adolescent and an older, enticing adult
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False
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Sexually active adolescents who have conservative religious beliefs and oppose abortion are more likely to use birth control and to use it effectively
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False
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Recent research indicates that married people experience higher levels of sexual activity and satisfaction than singles
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True
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Compared to married counterparts, individuals who live together tend to have less traditional gender-role attitudes
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True
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The number of unmarried couples living together has increased to such a degree that it appears that the trend is to substitute cohabitation for marriage
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False
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Of the three marital styles Gottman has identified, the conflict-avoiding couple is at the highest level of risk for marital dissatisfaction and separation
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False
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Second marriages are more likely to end in divorce than first marriages
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True
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The younger a person is when he or she marries, the greater the possibility of divorce
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True
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There is a close correlation between sexual activity levels in early adulthood and sexual activity in later years
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True

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