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exam 1 develope Essay

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when given appropriate cues and prompts, young children demonstrate that they can:
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accurately remember a large quantity of information
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according to Vygotsky’s theory, the social_approach focuses on the social contexts of learning and building of knowledge through social interactions
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constructivist
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which of the following statements best describe child-centered kindergartens?
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child-centered kindergartens emphasize play, child-centered kindergartens focus on the process of learning, not on what is learned, child-centered kindergartens see children as individuals with their own developmental patterns of growth
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match each activity with the appropriate age at which can be achieved.
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3 years old-hoping and jumping 4 years old-climbing a low jungle gym 5 years old-running races with friends
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In early childhood,_functioning involves developmental advances in cognitive flexibility, goal-setting, and cognitive inhibition.
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executive
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as trevor learns about long division, his mother first helps him a lot but gradually decreases the level of support. This is an example of:
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scaffolding
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children’s safety is influenced by which of the following factors?
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their family and home, their school and peers, their own behavior
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which theory views children as thinkers who can predict, explain, and understand themselves and others?
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theory of mind
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_ _ is a cognitive approach that focuses on children’s attention, memory, and problem-solving abilities.
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information processing
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which of the following symptoms are associated with autistic children?
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difficulty developing a theory of mind, deficits in communication, deficits in social interactions
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match the constructivist with the theory to which they belong.
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children organize and reorganize previous knowledge-piaget’s theory children organize through the social interactions-vygotsky’s theory focuses on the individual- piagets theory focuses on context and collaboration- vygotsky’s theory
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the_ approach emphasizes children’s free choice and spontaneity when engaging in educational activities.
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montessori
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the second stage of piaget’s cognitive theory of development lasts from ages 2 to 7 is called the:
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preoperational stage
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which of the following guidelines assist parents in teaching proper eating habits to their children?
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modeling healthy eating habits, maintaining a breakfast, lunch, and dinner routine, preparing a balanced meal with proper representation of the major food groups.
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which of the following is a government program that provides lower socioeconomic status children in the United states with skills for school success?
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head start
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along with growth in height, growth in _ is one of the two most obvious physical changes seen in early childhood.
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weight
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regarding growth in early childhood, which of the following statements are true?
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there is a slow, steady decline in percentage of body fat. head size is more in proportion to the rest of the body than it was during infancy
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rank the main causes of death among children, from the highest incidence to the lowest incidence.
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accidents, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hiv/aids
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the preoperational thought substage that is called_ thought is considered the period when children seek answers to all sorts of questions
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intuitive
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the awareness that people can have false beliefs, beliefs that are not true, occurs around:
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5 years of age
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which of the following are examples of gross motor skills acquired in childhood?
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running and jumping, climbing, racing.
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which of the following statements best describe the key elements of Piagets preoperational stage of cognitive development?
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the centers for disease control and prevention defines children and adolescents as obese when their body mass index (BMI) is at or above the _ percentile.
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97th
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which of the following statements best describe the montessori approach to early childhood education?
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montessori programs encourage children to move freely between activities, The philosophy of the montessori approach has gained popularity in the United states., Montessori children are encouraged to become self-regulating problem solvers
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_attention supports the rapid increases in effortful control in the toddler and preschool years. An increase appreciation of their surroundings, helps children prolong their_ attention
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executive; sustained
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changes that began before birth contribute to the brains growth during early childhood. They are
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myelination and increased dendrites
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the metal awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others is known as the theory of
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mind
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children’s processing speed_ throughout early childhood
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increases
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according to Vygotsky’s theory, the social_ approach focuses on the social contexts of learning and the building of knowledge through social interactions.
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constructivist
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the focusing of attention on one characteristic while excluding all other characteristics is known as_.
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centration
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according to Piaget, the first substage of properational thought is the_ _ substage, in which the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.
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symbolic function
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Vygotsky’s theory stressed the importance of sociocultural influences on children’s development, which fits the belief that it is important to evaluate:
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contextual factors in learning
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project_ _ is a U.S government-funded program that provides education for low-income children to acquire the necessary skills for success in school.
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head start
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which of the following activities factor into children’s literacy abilities?
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writing, talking, reading, listening
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the failure to conserve demonstrates centration and an inability to mentally_ actions
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reverse
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all of the following would prevent many of the incidences of death among young children living in poverty around the world except:
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a crackdown on generic medications
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the retention of information over time is defined as_.
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memory
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two aspects of attention that develop in early childhood are:
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sustained attention, executive attention
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compared to the growth rate in infancy, in early childhood the percentage of increase in weight and height_ with each year
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decreases
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according to Vygotsky, which of these statements concerning the development of internal and external speech are true?
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children communicate externally before developing internal speech., when self-talk becomes second nature, children can act without verbalizing., the transition from external to internal speech occurs between 3 and 7 years of age
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when it comes to the development of their literacy skills, children:
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need to be active participants, should experience listening, talking, and writing as well as reading, need to be immersed in a wide range of experiences
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children and adolescents above the BMI’s 97th percentile are classified as_, where as children and adolescents in the 95th or 96th percentile are considered overweight
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obese
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engagement in pretend play and the ability to represent objects that are not present are associated with symbolic function substage, which is the first substage of the_ stage of cognitive development.
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preoperational
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the awareness that an object does not change its basic properties or characteristics even when its appearance is altered is known as
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conservation
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marta feels sorry for the white crayon because no one ever uses it and she thinks it must be sad. This is an example of
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animism
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the contemporary theory of cognitive development that focuses on a child’s attention, memory, and problem-solving skills is called:
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information processing
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according to Piaget’s preoperational stage, a child does not yet perform operations, which are defined as reversible _ actions
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mental
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according to Vygotsky’s theory, children use speech and language directed toward themselves and others for which of the following reasons?
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social communication, problem solving, planning their behaviors
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_ in education focuses on both the age-appropriate patterns in a child’s growth, as well as the child’s unique individual differences.
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developmentally appropriate practice
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which of the following statements best describe the concept of private speech?
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according to Vygotsky, children use private speech to help with difficult problem-solving tasks., according to Vygotsky, children who use private speech exhibit improved and performance., Vygotsky found private speech was a positive addition to children’s development
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which of the following elements did Vygotsky emphasize and Piaget minimize as playing a role in shaping thought?
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language, education, sociocultural context
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according to Vygotsky, in early childhood children use private_ to help solve tasks.
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speech
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ethnic origin and_ are two most important contributors to height
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nutrition
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which of Vygotsky’s concepts can be used in the classroom
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using peer teaching and encouraging children to practice their skills., focusing lessons on the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development to teach advanced cognitive skills., using assessments to provide information on a child’s zone of proximal development
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which of the following is the correct sequence for Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development?
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sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational; formal operational
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Which of the following characteristics and variables tend to be related to greater height in U.S
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African american, first born, Urban
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which of the following statements accurately describe the development of children’s theory of mind from toddlerhood into early childhood?
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children begin to recognize and verbalize positive and negative emotions., children begin to understand that what others see amy not be the same as what they see., children begin to recognize and acknowledge that their desires can differ from another child’s desires
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increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system, and helps children develop abilities such as hand-eye coordination
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myelination
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the percentage of U.S children who are overweight has_ in recent decades.
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increased dramatically
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When preschoolers seem confident in their knowledge and understanding of the world, yet are not aware of how they know this information, Piaget states they are in the_ thought substage
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intuitive
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preschool children learn and apply the more advanced grammar rules of _, which involves how words should be ordered in a sentence.
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syntax
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early precursors of literacy and academic successes include all of the following, except:
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metalinguistic awareness
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the inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is called
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egocentrism
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which of the following statements best represent common results from piaget’s classic task of conservation?
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children younger than 7 usually say that the beakers contain unequal amounts of liquid., children older than 7 usually say that the beakers contain the same amount of liquid
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which of the following describe strategies belonging to Vygotsky that have been used in the classroom setting?
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encouraging children to develop private speech in the classroom to aid in problem-solving tasks., providing more real-life learning experiences thatn abstract presentations in classroom instruction., using more-skilled peers as “teachers”
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although nearly all head start programs have a positive influence on children’s development,_ of head start programs are of questionable quality.
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40%
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which of the following statements accurately describes research findings regarding the consequences of parental smoking?
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children being raised in homes with parental smoking have an increased risk of developing asthma conditions., children being raised in homes with parental smoking have an increased risk of developing health problems., Roughly 22% of children and adolescents are exposed to parental smoke in their homes
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preschool children tend to compare things in a haphazard way, whereas elementary school age children exhibit_ by comparing two items systematically, one detail at a time.
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planfulness
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according to research of Zigler and colleagues 2006, quality universal preschool programs could prepare all U.S children for both school readiness and academic
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success
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Rebecca, a six-year-old girl, is very good at carrying on conversations with people. Her two-year-old brother Jack is not very good at carrying on conversations. This is primarily because
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the understanding of pragmatics improves with age
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in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the_ lobe areas involved in planning and organizing new actions and in maintaining attention to tasks.
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frontal
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the focusing of mental resources on select information is called
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attention
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Vygotsky’s theory of child development includes which of the following premises?
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children’s cultural environment influences their thinking process., children actively construct their knowledge and understanding., children develop cognitive skills through societal tools
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the social ill of_ contributes great to the illness and mortality rates in developing countries
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poverty
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guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in_ of physical activity per day.
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2 hours
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students who attended the perry preschool program, an alternative to the head start programs, were found to have which of the following long-term outcomes, when compared to a control group from the same background who did not attend perry?
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fewer teen pregnancies, higher high school graduation rates, a greater likelihood of being in the workplace after age 40
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what type of memory increases during early childhood until approximately the age of sever?
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short-term memory
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information is more accurately recalled by young children when
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the interviewer has a neutral tone., there are no misleading questions asked
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a study of U.S 2 and 3 year olds found that_ were the vegetable they were most likely to consume
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french fries
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Vygotsky’s theory maintained that language and_ develope independently before merging.
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thought
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what does vygotsky call the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children
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zone of proximal development
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a major environmental danger that increases the likelihood of childhood asthma and other respiratory conditions is parental
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smoking
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children who understand morphology rules use all of theory rules use all the following parts of speech, except:
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conjunctions
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sensorimotor play is best defined as behavior engaged in by:
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infants to derive pleasure from exercising their sensorimotor schemes
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_ are activities that children engage in for pleasure and that have rules. Often they involve competition
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games
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according to social role theory, which of the following are important causes of gender differences power, assertiveness, and nurturing?
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social hierarchy, division of labor
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a child who uses the cordless phone as a microphone while singing is engaging in what type of play?
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pretense/symbolic
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_ states that gender typing emerges when children develop an understanding of what their culture considers gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior.
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gender schema theory
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what are the three proposed social theories of gender?
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social role theory, psychoanalytical theory, social cognitive theory
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_ _ is defined as the ability to discern another’s inner psychological state.
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perspective talking
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what type of impact does television have on young children?
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significant
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observation, imitation, and rewards and punishment are facets of which gender theory?
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social cognitive
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_ play combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representations of ideas, and it occurs when children engage in the self-regulated creation of a product or a solution
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constructive
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which of the following are important functions of peer relationships?
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to provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family., to provide children with a source of comparison and feedback about their abilities
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math the definition to the corresponding style of play.
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practice- involves repetitive behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports pretense/symbolic- involves physical environment transformed into a symbol social- involves social interactions with peers. constructive- combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas
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_ development involves changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong.
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moral
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according to social role theory, gender differences result from the _ roles of women and men.
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contrasting
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what characteristics do young children (age 3) often use in their self-descriptions?
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physical activities, physical attributes, material attribuites
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a gender _ is a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel.
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role
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which of the following is not as self-conscious emotion?
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fear
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young children believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow immediately. This is a belief in:
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immanent justice
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_involves responding to another person’s feelings with an emotion that echoes the others’s feelings.
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empathy
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which of the following statements about the human life span is true?
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the maximum life span is 122 years, in the 20th century, the human life span has increased by 30 years in the united states., the upper boundary of the human life span is based on the oldest age documented., the maximum human life span has not changed since the beginning of recorded history
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in contrast to Freud, who proposed stages of_ development, Erikson developed an eight-stage _ theory of development.
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psychosexual; psychosocial
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a specific assertion and prediction that can be tested is referred to as a
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hypothesis
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match each of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development with its description
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oral stage- infant pleasure centers on mouth anal stage- child pleasure centers on anus phallic stage- child pleasure focuses on genitals latency stage- sexual interest is repressed genital stage- sexual interest is reawakened
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rank, in order from the first to last, the steps in the scientific method
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1) conceptualize a problem 2) collect research data 3) analyze data 4) draw conclusions
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select the four ways of measuring age from the list below.
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biological, social, chronological, psychological
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madeline has become very active in a number of political and social organizations. She is very passionate about mentoring younger people. Madeline is probably in _ adulthood
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middle
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Julie mastered the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. She has recently developed more self-control and is very motivated to do well in school. Julie is most likely in the developmental period of:
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middle childhood
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match the process of development with its example
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biological- physical stature cognitive- language and intelligence socioemotional- relationships with others
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which of the following represent main issues that impact how we look at development?
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nature and nurture., stability and change., continuity and discontinuity
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which kind of research is the only type in which a researcher can establish cause and effect?
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experimental research
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which of the following correctly describe the life-span perspective of human development?
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it occurs throughout life., it involves growth and change
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Nick’s mother and mother-in-law are both in their 50’s and are currently both experiencing menopausal symptoms. This would be an example of a _ influence.
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normative age-graded
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the _ precesses refer to changes in thought
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cognitive
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match the various conceptualizations of age with their description.
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biological age- involves knowing the functional capacities of a persons vital organs. psychological age- involves adaptive capacities ( such as flexibility and motivation) as compared with others of the same chronological age social age- involves connectedness with other and roles individuals adopt chronological age- age of a person in terms of years
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sharon is becoming more self-sufficient and can follow instructions. She is even learning to identify letters. She is in the _ _ period of development.
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early childhood
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match each of the three major types of research design with its correct description
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descriptive- aims to observe and record behavior experimental- aims to determine cause and effect correlational- aims to assess the strength of the relationship between or among variables
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the term _ refers to the capacity for change
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plasticity
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the “nature” part of the nature-nurture issue in development can be described as:
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a biological and genetic perspective
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which of the following statements are consistent with what happens at each developmental state in Erikson’s psychosocial theory?
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there is a crisis that must be resolved., there is a turning point marked by increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.
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ethnicity is rooted in
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cultural heritage, nationality, race
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amanda is engaging in much more logical and abstract thought than she used to, and she has become quite idealistic. She is far more interested in spending time with her friends that with her family. Amanda is most likely in the developmental period of:
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adolescence
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which of the following types of research design cannot provide causal reasons for the relationship between variables?
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descriptive, correlational
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which of the following is NOT a reason why life expectancy has increased by 30 years in the last century?
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weeding out genetic mutations
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_ refers to characteristics of people as males and females
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gender
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ducklings will follow the first moving object that they see, usually their mother. This process is called
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imprinting
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_ age refers to connectedness with others and the roles individuals adopt.
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social
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match the main developmental issues with its description
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nature vs. nurture- involves how much of our development is impacted by biology and how much by the environment continuity vs. discontinuity- involves how much of our development is gradual/cumulative and how much is stage-like stability vs. change- involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist or evolve throughout development
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the goal of _ research is to measure the strength of the relationship between or among variables
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correlational
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konrad_ , a European zoologist, helped bring ethology to prominence.
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lorenz
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which of the following are characteristics or components of the late adulthood period of development?
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it may involve new social roles and decreasing strength and health., it lasts until death., it begins when people are aging into their 60’s or 70’s
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which of the following examples most accurately represents what developmentalists understand regarding the age ranges of developmental periods
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one adolescent may enter early adulthood at the age of 19, whereas another adolescent may not enter early adulthood until the age of 21
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according to _, the presence or absence of certain experiences during critical periods has a long-lasting influence on people.
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ethologists
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life-span _ is defined as the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life span
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development
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jessica has formed an interrelated set of ideas to explain the phenomena of social anxiety. Jessica has formed a(n):
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theory
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_ encompasses the behavior patterns and beliefs that are passed from generation to generation
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culture
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research has linked poverty to greater turmoil, parent-child separation, violence, crowding, and poor housing. By presenting such findings to the government, researchers hope to lead to changes in _ _ in order to improve children’s lives
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social policies
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Dr. Abby is a clinical psychologist who specializes in seeing clients who are trying to lose weight. This exemplifies the contemporary focus of life-span development on:
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health and wellness
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_ is the developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months.
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infancy
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the _ period of development is the time from conception to birth
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prenatal
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the_ period of development is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and for many selecting a mate.
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early adulthood
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Dr. Ramirez has decided to send out 3,000 questionnaires asking people to self-report on their television-viewing habits. The type of research Dr. Ramirez is most likely conducting is
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survey research
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aysha does not believe any one theory can account for all real life phenomena. She would most likely adopt a/an ) approach to life-span development
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eclectic theoretical orientation
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culture is based on the _ of a group of people
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patterns of behavior, beliefs, and all other products
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which of the following is NOT one of the three main types of research designs?
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standardized research
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match the ethical principal with the correct explanation of the principle.
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informed consent- participants must have information on the costs and benefits of their participation. They must be told that they have the right to withdraw confidentiality- information on participants must not be published or revealed; ideally, participants information will remain anonymous. debriefing- participants will be advised of the purpose of the study and methods used once their participation has ended deception- for study purposes, participants are not told everything in advance because it would change their behavior and alter data. This is allowed as long as participants are not harmed.
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which of the following are cognitive theories of development?
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Piaget’s developmental theory., Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory., information-processing theory
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when conducting life-span development research, researchers must be cautious of _ effects, such as a person’s time of birth, era, or generation, because they can powerfully affect the dependent measures in research concerned with age
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cohort
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the observance of behavior in real-world settings, while making no effort to manipulate or control the situation, is known as_ observation
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naturalistic
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both the behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize:
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continuity in development
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a method that involves systematically gathering data in a laboratory or natural setting by watching and recording interactions or behaviors is known as _ research.
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observational
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which of the following are key factors of Bandura’s social cognitive theory?
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cognition, environment, behavior
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in an experiment, a(n)_ variable is manipulated by the experimenter whereas a(n) _ variable is measured for change in response to the manipulation
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independent, dependent
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Which of the following types of research designs aims to observe and record behavior?
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descriptive
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which of the following are components of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory?
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chronosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, microsystem, mesosystem
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functional magnetic resonance imaging is a _ measure used to collect research data.
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physiological
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which of the following are methods of data collection?
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case studies, physiological measures, observation, surveys and interviews
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which of the following are key characteristics of Vygotsky’s theory?
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social interaction, culture
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the_ period of development is the period of transition from childhood to early adulthood. It begins at approximately 10 t0 12 years of age and ends at 18 to 21 years of age.
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adolescent
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according to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, a child’s cognition is _ (qualitatively/quantitatively) different in one stage compared with another.
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qualitatively
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which theoretical approach believes that individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for sensing, storing, and remembering information that allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills.
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information-processing
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according to skinner’s _ conditioning theory, the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence.
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operant
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Tamara is one of 30 participants in a study of language development. She was tested when she was two, again when she was five, and will be tested every 3 years until she is 14. Tamara is participating in a _ study.
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longitudinal
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which of the following are criticisms of research performed in the laboratory?
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participants usually know they are being studied., it is not a natural setting
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a research strategy that simultaneously compares people of different ages is known as the _approach.
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cross-sectional
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cognitive processes refer to changes in the following areas.
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thought, intelligence, language
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observation, surveys, interviews, standardized testing, physiological measures, and case studies are all methods of_ collection.
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data
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marina is interested in researching the effects of teacher-to-child ratio on academic achievement. This exemplifies the contemporary focus of life-span development on:
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education
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which psychoanalytic theorist proposed the eight-stage psychosocial theory of development?
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Erikson
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which of the following are variables found in experimental research?
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dependent, independent
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which of the following apply to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
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organization and adaptation are important., it consists of four stages
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the_ theory states that behavior is tied to evolution, is strongly affected by biological influence, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods
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ethological
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a _ is a controlled setting for scientific observation, in which many of the complex factors of the “real world” are absent.
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laboratory
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the information-_ theory of development emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize it.
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processing
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which of the following statements are consistent with what happens at each developmental stage in Erikson’s psychosocial theory?
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there is a crisis that must be resolved., there is a turning point marked by increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.
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which of the following are physiological measures used to collect data?
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checking blood levels of hormones., functional magnetic resonance imaging
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which of the following are considered teratogens?
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drugs, cigar smoke, paternal age, maternal stress, alchol
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the outer layer of cells that will eventually provide nutrition and support for the embryo is called the
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trophoblast
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the evolutionary process by which the best-adapted individuals of a species survive and reproduce is called
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natural
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match the time frame of prenatal growth with the name of the developing organism
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conception to two weeks post-conception-zygote two weeks to eight weeks post conception-embryo two months post-conception to birth-fetus
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small for date infants:
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may be preterm or full-term
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two weeks after childbirth are referred to as the_ period, which lasts about six weeks
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postpartum
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regarding paternal risk factors, which of the following statements are true?
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there is an increased risk of birth defects in offspring of older fathers, if a father smokes during the mothers pregnancy, there is an increased risk for miscarriage.
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which genetic disorder occurs primarily in african americans
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sickle cell anemia
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in a _ delivery, the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in her abdomen
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cesarean
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which of the following are psychoactive drugs?
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marijuana, caffeine, heroin, nicotine
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normally conducted seven weeks into the pregnancy,_ is used to detect structural abnormalities in the fetus and can help determine whether the baby is a boy or a girl
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ultrasound sonography
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the natural childbirth method attempts to reduce the mothers pain:
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with relaxation techniques, through education, by decreasing her fears
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during the germinal period, the fertilized egg, known as a_, is created, and cell division and implantation take place.
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zygote
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the _ is a life-support system that consists of blood vessels from the mother and the offspring that intertwine but do not join
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placenta
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in the period shortly after birth, a connection between the parent and infant forms. This attachment is known as
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bonding