Test Answers on Exam 1 – Flashcards with Answers

Flashcard maker : Robert May
What is seeing the general in the particular, seeing the strange in the familiar and challenge the common beliefs, seeing society in our everyday lives Durkheim’s theory of suicide: societal integration and seeing sociological: marginality and crisis
THe sociological perspectives

Where we live shapes the lives we lead, Societies throughout the world are increasingly interconnected, Many social problems that was face in theU.S. are far more serious elsewhere, and learning more about other societies helps better understand our own way of life.
Global perspectives

What are the three Theoretical approaches in sociology?
Structural-functional approach, Conflict approach, and symbolic-interaction approach

What approach is being described? Theoretical statement
Social structure
Social function
Social dysfunction
Manifest pattern
Latent pattern
Structural-functional approach

What approach is being described? Theoretical statement
Gender conflict
Race conflict
Conflict approach

What approach is being described?Theoretical statement
Symbolic-interaction approach

__________is a Scientific/Positivist
Empirical evidence, Objectivity, Interpretive, and Critical Sociology
Research orientation

_________is described as experiments, surveys and Participant observations?
Research Methods

________is described as a sex vs. gender banning homosexual law, college students’ opposition to homosexual relationship declined significantly after 1980 and incest taboo.
Sexual attitudes in the U.S

______is described as asexual, bisexual, homosexual, heterosexual: the norm worldwide, and sexual attraction vs. sexual behavior
Sexual orientation

Gay rights movement

Teen Pregnancy- U.S. teen birth rate is higher than all other high-income nations
Sexual issues and controversies


The gender inequality and what kind of countries is prostitution most common around the world

An expression of power, official government definition only includes female victims, and most rapists are heterosexuals
Rape and Date Rape

What are the three Theoretical perspectives?
Structural-functional, Social conflict, and symbolic-interaction

_______is described as theoretical statement, incest taboo, and the functions of prostitution.

_______is described as theoretical statement, enforcement of prostitution is uneven, queer theory, and heterosexism

________is described as the theoretical statement

Applying the sociological perspective can help people__________.
A) explain how we all are unaffected by the operation of society

B) turn public issues into private concerns

C) in the United States see our way of life as better than those of other nations

D) assess the truth of “common sense


If Rosa is using the sociological approach that takes the micro-level of analysis, then she is useing the ________approach to sociology.
A) social-conflict

B) symbolic-interaction

C) structural-functional

D) racial-conflict


Taking a global perspective involves__________?
A) analyzing society with a micro-level orientation

B) studying our society’s place in the larger world

C) establishing a hierarchy for the globe

D) focusing on what makes everyone the same


A sociologist who takes the critical approach sees society as________?
A) ongoing interaction

B) a representation of objective reality

C) unequal and in need of social change

D) an orderly system


See the general in the particular is one way to describe ___________?
A) the global perspective

B) how people look at their marriage partners

C) the future

D) the sociological perspective


Caroline and several of her coworkers were let go as a result of outsourcing their work to India. Now, Caroline is unemployed for the first time in 15 years. C. Wright Mills would see Caroline’s situation as a result of __________.
A)The operation of society

B) personal failing

C) a positive consequence of outsourcing

D) her lack of dedication to the job


A _______ is a statement of how and why specific facts are related.
A) function

B) fact

C) belief

D) theory


Which of the following ways of gaining knowledge is based on collecting empirical evidence? A) consulting a lawyer for a legal problem

B) deepening personal faith by going to church

C) growing up with the belief that stealing is wrong

D) comparing men and women to learn how the two sexes differ in size and weight


Because Aaban wants to study the effects of discrimination against Muslims in post-9/11 America, he feels that he needs to establish a rapport with his subjects before asking them questions about their experiences. The best research method for Aaban to use would be __________.
A) an experiment

B) an interview

C) a closed-ended questionnaire

D) using existing data


Joyce is a clinical sociologist. She would most likely work to improve the lives of her troubled clients by focusing on __________.
A) poor physical health

B) difficulties in social relationships

C) people’s personal issues

D) personality disorders


Paula is a devout believer who attends Christian religious services every week. Which of the following reasons, or manifest functions, would she likely give for doing so?
A) to gain support of a social organization

B) To worship and achieve salvation

C) to express her emotions

D) to reinforce her sense of identity


Generating an idea for social research begins with __________.
A) experimenting and collecting data

B) theory and its application

C) correlation and causation

D)being curious and using the sociological perspective


Which research method challenges researchers by possibly yielding a low return rate?
A) experiments

B) questionnaire

C) participant observation

D) existing sources


Which are the three major sociological research orientations?
A) positivist, interpretive, and critical

B)structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction

C)reliable, valid, and spurious

D) conceptual, variable, and statistical


Because Claudia’s interview subjects believed it was improper for an unmarried woman to speak privately with a man, the information she gathered was skewed by her gender. This is an example of the research error of __________.
A) interference

B) androcentricity

C) double standards



To check whether the correlation between two variables is spurious, a sociologist keeps all the variables the same and changes one variable in order to see clearly the effect of that variable. This sociologist is using a technique called __________.
A) control

B) correlation

C) validity

D) accuracy


Which of the following characteristics do middle- and low-income countries have in common?
A) All of the people living in these countries have an extremely low standard of living.

B) Both kinds of countries display considerable social inequality, with a few rich but many poor.

C) Both of these categories of countries experience frequent serious droughts and famines.

D) Most of the people in these countries have no educational opportunities.


A social-conflict analysis of sports points out __________.
A) how different people interpret the rules of games slightly differently

B) that sports provide a social setting and create thousands of jobs

C) that the games people play reflect their social standing

D) how sports promote physical fitness and provide a stress release


One criticism made of the social-conflict approach is its __________.
A) its focus on how people are joined by society

B) its inability to clearly identify cause-and-effect relationships between conflict and social change

C) ignoring the large picture and focusing on individuals

D) ignoring of how shared values unify members of society


Tyrone identifies independent and dependent variables, measures the initial value of the dependent variable, exposes the dependent variable to the independent variable, and measures the dependent variable again. He has used which research method?
A) using existing data

B) experiment

C) participant observation

D) survey


__________, which scientists tend to dismiss because they are difficult to measure, are the focus of the interpretive sociologist’s attention.
A) Objective observations

B) The influences of societal biases

C) Empirical data

D) Subjective meanings and feelings


Marcia conducts interviews to learn what people’s religions mean to them. She is gathering __________.
A) descriptive statistics

B) numerical evidence

C) quantitative data

D) qualitative data


When a sociologist specifies exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable, he or she is said to ________ the variable.
A) validate

B) operationalize

C) test

D) conceptualize


________ is something scientists strive for and is defined as “personal neutrality in conducting research.”
A) Objectivity

B) Reliability

C) Validity

D) Accuracy


The race-conflict approach takes a point of view that focuses on __________.
A) how race helps organize society and keeps it operating in a stable and orderly way

B) inequality and conflict between women and men of the same race

C) the everyday interaction of individuals and the resulting society that is established

D) inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories


Positivist researchers claim that only by controlling ________ can researchers study the world as it is rather than tell us how they think it should be.
A) personal values and biases

B) all independent variables

C) all dependent variables

D) peer response to work


Sociologists look for __________.
A) biological causes of our behavior

B) evidence of human free-will

C) general social patterns in the behavior of particular people

D) how each person is unique


________ refers to any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
A) Social structure

B) Social conflict

C) Symbolism

D) Social function


For which category of people have researchers found a rising rate of extramarital sex over the course of recent decades?
A) older men

B) younger women

C) older women

D) younger men


To determine the value of a variable in a specific case, a procedure called _______ is used.
A) validation

B) pre-testing

C) measurement

D) positivism


Three requirements must be met to establish cause and effect: 1) a demonstrated correlation; 2) an independent variable that occurs before the dependent variable; and 3) __________.
A) final evidence established in a controlled laboratory environment

B) proof of reliability and validity

C) no evidence that a third variable could be causing a spurious correlation between the two

D) the use of control


Kareem writes an essay in which he quotes Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer. Kareem is most likely writing about the ________ theoretical approach.
A) symbolic-interaction

B) gender-conflict

C) social-conflict

D) structural-functional


To establish ________, scientists examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable and conclude that the first causes the second. A) validity

B) spurious correlation

C) correlation

D) cause and effect


Michelle is a 32-year-old African American college graduate. Thinking sociologically about how society guides mate selection, we might expect that she is most likely to marry a __________.
A) 35-year-old Caucasian American man who is also a college graduate

B) 22-year-old African American woman with her PhD

C) 32-year-old Asian American man with a high school diploma

D) 35-year-old African American man who is also a college graduate


The decision an individual makes about whom to marry is going to reflect __________.
A)personal feelings

B) societal rules and patterns

C) state and federal laws

D) All of the responses are correct.


What is positivism?
A) the belief that society is a reflection of human nature

B) the belief that society is a reflection of God’s will

C) an approach to knowledge that is based on science

D) the belief in the supernatural


Jamal works as a police officer. He has a “sociological advantage” from his study of sociology. That is, he understands __________.
A) why people turn to crime in the first place

B) which categories of people are most at risk of becoming criminals

C) which categories of people are most at risk of becoming victims

D) All of the responses are correct.


Winnie is a sociological researcher who participates and interacts with her research subjects. She looks deeper than outward behavior, analyzing why people behave the way they do. Winnie embraces the _______ orientation of sociological research.
A) positivist

B) critical

C) structural-functional

D) interpretive


Carmela takes a positivist orientation toward research. She is most likely to base her studies on __________.
A) interpretation of people’s reasons for their behavior

B) qualitative data

C) empirical evidence found through scientific investigation

D) a need for social change


________ of adults in the United States say that premarital sex is “not wrong at all” or “wrong only sometimes.”
A) About one-fourth

B) More than 90 percent

C) About two-thirds

D) About one-third


How does the teen birthrate in the United States compare to that of other high-income countries?
A) It is slightly lower.

B) It is about the same.

C) It is much lower.

D) It is higher.


Since 1980, college students’ opposition to homosexual relationships has _______.
A) increased slightly

B) declined slightly

C) stayed about the same

D) declined sharply


People who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other are called ____.
A) bisexuals

B) intersexuals

C) hermaphrodites

D) transsexuals


Dana has been interested in men her entire life but recalls a brief feeling of sexual attraction to actress Angelina Jolie when she saw her in a movie. Sociologically speaking, Dana most likely has a(n) ________ orientation.
A) bisexual

B) asexual

C) heterosexual

D) homosexua


How would the structural-functional approach explain the presence of the incest taboo in all societies?
A) Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order.

B) Sexuality is linked to social inequality; since incest is more common among the poor, society has deemed it taboo.

C) The meanings people attach to sexuality are socially constructed and not subject to change.

D) The regulation of sexual patterns is one of the ways in which men control and dominate women


n a structural-functional analysis, Kingsley Davis argued that prostitution _____.
A) serves several useful functions

B) is found only in low-income nations

C) should not be regulated by society

D) is never acceptable in anyone’s eyes


As a means of controlling poverty, married women in low-income nations are more likely to use contraceptives than are married women in higher-income nations.
A) True
B) False

Prostitution is illegal everywhere in the United States, and men who pay for sex are almost certain to be arrested.
A) True
B) False

Feminism links sexuality to ______.
A)the domination of women by men

B) social equality

C) sociobiological factors

D) societal roles


In the United States today, about ________ adult men report(s) having paid for sex at some time.
A) one out of every three

B) one in six

C) two out of every three

D) one in one hundred


The symbolic-interaction approach views sexuality as ______.
A) the same in every period of history

B) socially constructed meanings

C) biological

D) inherently the same across cultures


The theoretical approach that explores ways in which sexuality is important for the operation of society is the __________ approach.
A) feminist

B) symbolic-interaction

C) structural-functional

D) social-conflict


What is the difference between sex and gender?
A) Gender refers to a person’s biological traits, while sex refers to a person’s sexual orientation.

B) Sex is cultural, while gender is biological.

C) Gender refers to a person’s sexual orientation, while sex refers to a person’s biological traits.

D) Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits


Which of the following sexual orientations has high same-sex attraction and low opposite-sex attraction?
A) heterosexuality

B) bisexuality

C) homosexuality

D) asexuality


A majority of adults in the United States believe that a woman should be able to undergo an abortion if __________.
A) she is married and does not want any more children

B) she cannot financially afford another child

C) she does not want a child for any reason

D) her life is threatened by the pregnancy


Although more than 90 percent of United States adults say that extramarital sex is wrong, about ___ percent of married men have had at least one extramarital sexual experience.
A) 50

B) 25

C) 15

D) 40


In the United States, both laws and cultural morals prohibit close relatives such as a parent and a child from having sex or marrying.
A) True
B) False

Heterosexism is _____.
A) a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as “queer”

B) a view that labels heterosexuals as sexist

C) bias against transsexual people

D) against women


Sexual attraction is not the same thing as sexual behavior.
A) True
B) False

About ___ of rapes involve people who know each other.
A) one-quarter

B) one-half

C) one-tenth

D) two-thirds


A man who is attracted to male as well as female partners is considered to be ________________.
A) bisexual

B) asexual

C) heterosexual

D) intersexual


Elisha is a victim of rape. Statistically speaking, which of the following people most likely committed the crime?
A) a homeless man on the street

B) a current male friend

C) a stranger she met at a bar

D) her father


According to research carried out by the Alan Guttmacher Institute, which of the following teenage girls would be at greatest risk of becoming sexually active and having an unplanned child?
A) a low-income white teen who lives with her aunt and has no other family

B) an African American teen whose large, supportive family has no religious affiliation

C) a middle-class Hispanic teen who lives with her parents and three older brothers

D) a low-income white teen who lives with both parents and has strong family ties


Around the world, prostitution is most common in _____.
A) countries where religion is a weak element in the culture

B) poor countries where patriarchy is strong and women have low standing

C) countries where it is illegal

D) wealthy countries where men have disposable incomes


Larissa believes that abortion is wrong, and that no one has the right to end the life of an unborn child. Larissa’s position can best be described as __________.
A) pro-choice

B) anti-choice

C) pro-life

D) anti-life


According to the social-conflict approach, sexuality __________.
A) is tied to the concept of reproduction

B) has a different meaning in every culture

C) is both a cause and an effect of inequality

D) has become less socially controlled over time


Which of the following demonstrates the concept of heterosexism?
A) Abortion was made legal in 1973.

B) The word “pornography” comes from the Greek word for “prostitute.”

C) Gay marriage is banned in more than 40 states.

D) Circumcision is common in the United States but rare in other parts of the world.


Of the different categories of sex workers, ______ earn the least and are at greatest risk for violence.
A) call girls

B) massage parlor workers

C) streetwalkers

D) pimps


Which of the following global regions reports the lowest use of contraception among married women?
A) Asia

B) South America

C) Africa

D) Europe


The concept of a distinct category of people called “homosexuals” ______.
A) dates back to ancient Greece

B) did not exist until about a century ago

C) originated during the sexual revolution of the 1960s

D) was first introduced by the Kinsey studies in the 1940s


Marty believes that, by defining heterosexuality as “correct” and homosexuality as “incorrect,” society effectively devalues and controls gays and lesbians. Which of sociology’s theoretical approaches is Marty taking?
A) structural-functional

B) social-conflict

C) feminist

D) symbolic-interaction


Which of the following is an argument made by conservatives against pornography?
A) Porn stars who make a profit are essentially engaging in prostitution.

B) Pornography leads to a breakdown of social morals.

C) Research has conclusively shown that pornography is the main cause of violent crimes.

D) Regulation of pornography diverts law enforcement from more important issues.


What is the share of people in the United States population who define themselves as gay?
A) According to Kinsey’s research, almost everyone is gay at some point in their lives.

B) Estimates range from 10 to 30 percent.

C) About 1.7 percent of men and 1.1 percent of women.

D) According to Laumann’s research, less than 1 percent of adults say they are gay.


Many individuals who are transsexual __________.
A) do not usually develop secondary sex characteristics

B) disregard conventional ideas about how females and males should look and behave

C) uphold conventional ideas about how females and males should look and behave

D) have both male and female sexual characteristics


Which of the following statements most accurately describes the sexual revolution?
A) More people began choosing to limit their number of sexual partners or not to have sex at all.

B) It caused a national uproar.

C) It was a conservative call for a return to “family values.”

D) It increased sexual activity overall, and it changed women’s behavior even more than men’s.


Heterosexuality is ______.
A) less likely to be a norm only in high-income societies

B) the norm in about half of the world’s societies

C) the norm in a slight majority of human societies

D) the norm in all human societies


Sexual orientation refers to _______.
A) a person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person

B) the emotional, but not sexual, attraction one person feels toward another

C) the sex of a person’s partners

D) how highly “sexed” a person is


The concept of homophobia turns the tables on society by asking, “What’s wrong with people who cannot accept a different sexual orientation?”
A) True
B) False

Mimi is pregnant at age 15. Statistically speaking, where is she most likely to live?
A) Wisconsin

B) Montana

C) Texas

D) Vermont


Which of the following is an example of an intersexual individual?
A) Austin, who is not attracted to men or to women

B) Silvia, who was born with male genitalia but underwent gender reassignment surgery

C) Miguel, who is attracted to both men and women

D) Jill, who considers herself a female but was born with both male and female genitalia


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