Ethics quiz 1

define ethics
the study of standards of right and wrong.
what do ethics deal with
the part of philosophy dealing with moral conduct, duty, and judgment
what word does ethics come from
greek word, ethos, meaning character
what word does moral come from
Latin word mores
what do morals and ethics have in common
the two words refer to behavior
what is the difference between morals and ethics
ethics deals with the study of right and wrong, morality deals with the doing of right and wrong.
What are the two major influence on ethical thinking for western civilization
Greek tradition and Judeo-Christian tradition
What is the Greek tradition concerned with
leading the “good life” and the nature of happiness
What is the Judeo-Christian tradition concernce with
duty before god, doing what is “right” before God
What do Judeo-Christians believe are at the heart of morality
love of God and love of neighbor
what is the purpose of learning ethics
to reach for moral autonomy and not be automatons
what is moral autonomy
The ability to reason for oneself without passive adherence to societal or social conventions
what is an automaton
one who succumbs to parents, tradition, or peer pressure, and not making one’s own decisions
how do you obtain moral autonomy
identify moral problems, create moral possibiliies to solve problems, weigh all the different options, clearly state the problem and the solutions, be knowledgeable about all people and differing customs
what are the four points of view when describing an ethical situation
Social Scientist, Casuist, Moralist, and Ethical theorist
What does a social scientist do
describe how we actually behave
How does a social scientist describe how we actually behave
observe, study, report the fact, describes activity, may or may not draw a conclusion
What does a casuist do
advise, examine extenuating circumstance, and adjudicate
What does a moralist do
tells us what he/she thinks we ought to do and urges us to follow the right way, persuades, impart values to others, improve morality of people
What does an ethical theorist do
question systematically and examine critically the underlying principles of morality, establish norms for behavior (a regulatory), calls for examination of principles- deliberative
What are the four aims of philosophical ethics
clarity, comprehensive perspective, critical assessment, and moral guidance
What is the main focus of Ancient Ethics
to define the sort of life worth living
What were the two positions society thought in ancient greece
Relativism and Hedonism
What is Relativism
what a person or society believes may be true “only” for that person or society, denies any belief is true or false, each belief is correct for that person or society
What is Hedonism
the belief that pleasure is the “good”, a person should approve any activity that gives him or her pleasure
What is the Socratic Method
asking questions
What was one of Socrates famous teaching methods
Made students come up with their own answers
Who were the Sophists
Relativist tutors who taught rhetoric, the power of persuasive speech
Why was Socrates put to death
he “corrupted” the youth of Athens
Who was Socrates’ prize student
Plato
What was the name of the school that Plato founded
The Achademy
What was the most famous dialogue that Plato wrote
The Republic
What is in The Republic
the concept of justice, beliefs that there is an objectively correct answer to certain questions, the most important virtues a person could have is justice, justice has special balance, order, and harmony
What is the Harmony
the three classes of people: philosphers rule wisely, military defends the nation, artisan and farmers make goods and produce food
What are virtues
desirable behavior traits
What is Plato’s main position
Man should live by reason
What is the idea of Form of Good
a concept too above man too understand and it is the balance of the soul’s three elements
What are the soul’s three elements
reasons, desire, and courage
What does the Reason do
guide spirited element and appetites- makes all other virtues possible
What are the mind’s three parts?
Reason, spirited element, and appetites
What is the dominant virtue of reason
wisdom
What does the Spirited Element do
support reason in controlling appetites
What is the dominant virtue of the Spirited Element
courage
what do the Appetites do
maintain body by satisfying physical cravings
What is the dominant virtue of the Appetites
temperance
What is the Doctrine of the Unity of the Virtues
the belief that in an individiual sou/personality, harmony exists between a person’s desires for things and satisfaction of fulfilling those desires
What are the desires of an individual
desire of reason for knowledge and orderliness, spirt for “self-defense”, for bodily appetites
What exists when wisdom, courage, and temperance are present in a man
justice
How do wrongdoings occur
When reason and spirited element lose a struggle to appetites
what is the worse vice
ignorance
What is the theory of Form
All material things are imperfect expressions of perfect forms: entites exist in theory, perfection could not be reached in physical world, perfect form lies beyond our sense, square could be expressed perfectly as a mathematical formula, in physical world, impossible to make a perfect square
Who was Aristotle a student of
Plato
Who did Aristotle tutor
Alexander the Great
What did Aristotle found
Lycecum
What are nicomachean ethics
The first systematic treatment of ethics in Western civilization, manuscript focuses on the goal or purpose of human beings. Like Socrates and Plato, Aristotle emphasizes the supremacy of human beings’ rational nature
Differs from Plato – Aristotle does not believe Plato’s theory of forms – there is a unity in forms
What does Aristotle agree with Socrates and Plato
he emphasizes the supremacy of human beings’ rational nature
How does Aristotle differ from Plato
He does not believe in Plato’s theory of forms- he believes there is a unity in forms
What does Aristotle think that people ultimately desire
neither wealth nor honor, to be self sufficient, always desirable, and attainable
What do people really want, according to Aristotle
happiness
An activity of the soul in accordance with_____ depends on _________ and _______
virtue, potentiality, actuality
What is an acorns potentiality
an oak tree
What is the opposite of potentiality
actuality
How does a person actualize according to Aristotle
by living a life of reason, one comes to the full realization of his or her own potentiality
What are the two types of virtue according to Aristotle
Moral and intellectual
What are moral virtues
courage, temperance, justice, generosity: products of habit which evolve in states of character, defined by limits, work within reason according to the golden mean
What are intellectual virtues
wisdom, intelligence, prudence; product of study and inquiry, unlimited- so more is better, contemplation of truths and discovery of principles, highest form of contemplation limited so only select get few happines
According to The Doctrine of the Golden Mean, what is the true virtue in the range
the virtue in the middle
Who does the doctrine apply to
any desirable quality of humans
What is the Golden Mean
what is morally reasonable
What does a virtuous person do
live according to reason, realizes his or her own potentiality
How is Aristotle an Elitist
he believed that contemplation is limited to a few of people, contemplation leads to the highest human happiness, while contemplation is limited to a select few, people at lower ranks of society can experience lesser types of happiness