Ethics Chapter 1-4

We properly use the terms good, bad, blameworthy, and praiseworthy to refer to concepts or judgments of value.

If we wish to study the moral principles, rules, or theories that guide our actions and judgments, we must delve into…
Normative Ethics

The application of moral norms to specific moral issues or cases is known as…
Applied Ethics

Many great religious thinkers have relied on reason to understand the truths of morality.

Descriptive ethics involves the systematic investigation of…
How people do in fact behave

According to the divine command theory, right actions are those that are willed by God.

Things that are valuable because they are a means to something else are said to be…
Instrumentally Valuable

The principle of universalizability demands that a moral statement that applies in one situation must apply in…
All situations that are relevantly similar

The principle of impartiality demands that we treat equals equally.

All major religious thinkers have accepted the divine command theory.

Morality is…
Beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and bad

Ethics gives us a royal road to moral truth.

Feelings are not an important part of moral experience.

Legal norms dominate moral norms.

Morality is both accessible and meaningful to us whether we are religious or not.

Religious believers have no need to do ethics.

Ethics, or moral philosophy, is…
The philosophical study of morality

Embracing without question the moral beliefs of your culture can undermine your personal freedom.

There are never any good reasons for treating someone differently from the way we treat others.

The philosophical study of morality

Beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and bad; they can include judgements, rules, principles, and theories

The scientific study of moral beliefs and practices
descriptive ethics

The study of the principles, rules, or theories that guide our actions and judgements
normative ethics

The study of the meaning and logical structure of moral beliefs

A cultural relativist will agree with this statement: “It is morally right to smoke marijuana in Amsterdam because the culture approves of it.”

Nothing is good or bad, according to emotivists.

One cannot be both an objectivist and a cultural relativist.

Social reformers are always right in the view of a cultural relativist.

Someone who is raised as an objectivist will likely hold that view as an adult, too.

The statement, “Shoplifting is wrong,” expresses only feelings of disapproval, according to emotivists.

A statement affirming that an action is right or wrong or that a person is good or bad is called a(n)
Moral Statement

A typical moral argument consists of premises and a conclusion, with the conclusion being a nonmoral statement, or judgment.

An argument that is supposed to give logically conclusive support to its conclusion is said to be

An assertion that something is or is not the case is called a(n)

An inductive argument is intended to provide probable, not decisive, support to the conclusion.

Hasty generalization is a fallacy of inductive reasoning.

Modus ponens is symbolized by: If p, then q; p; therefore, q.

Nonmoral premises, like all premises, must be
supported by good reasons.

The fallacy of arguing that a claim should be rejected solely because of the characteristics of the person who makes it is called argument to the person.

The fallacy of arguing that the absence of evidence entitles us to believe a claim is called
appeal to ignorance.

The fallacy of assigning two different meanings to the same term in an argument is known as faulty analogy.

The misrepresenting of someone’s claim or argument so it can be more easily refuted is called the fallacy of the straw man.

Very few arguments have implied premises.

We can test the truth of a moral premise by
using counterexamples.

What makes an argument a moral argument is that its conclusion is always
moral statement

A moral theory is equivalent to a moral code.

A moral theory is
an explanation of what makes an action right or what makes a person or thing good.

A moral theory is
helpful in attempts to make sense of moral judgments and principles.

A moral theory that is internally inconsistent is not eligible for further evaluation.

Applying the moral criteria of adequacy is basically a subjective, arbitrary affair.

Consequentialist moral theories say that what makes an action right is its

Ethical egoism says that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil for oneself.

Nonconsequentialist moral theories say that the rightness of an action
does not depend entirely on its consequences.

One criterion of adequacy for moral theories is consistency with
considered moral judgments.

One’s considered moral judgments can be mistaken.

eflective equilibrium is reached in one’s moral experience when one’s emotions are in balance.

The divine command theory says that the morally right action is the one
that reduces evil in the world.

The first step in theory assessment is to ensure that the theory meets the minimum requirement of

To a nonconsequentialist, telling a lie is wrong because it results in bad consequences.

A major criticism of ethical egoism is that it
is not consistent with one’s considered moral judgments.

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