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Essentials of Human Disease, Test 1 Essay

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A chronic disease of the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland and causes goiter is called?
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Hashimoto thyroiditis
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Hyaline membrane disease refers to
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infant respiratory distress syndrome
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A chronic, progressive, systemic autoimmune disease of the skin that is characterized by hardening and shrinking of the skin is
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systemic scleroderma
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Pyridostigmine bromide (Mestinon) is the drug of choice for treatment of
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myasthenia gravis
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The master gland of the endocrine system is the
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pituitary gland
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A chronic, progressive neuromuscular disease that is characterized by extreme muscular weakness (generally appearing first in the face) and progressive fatigue is
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myasthenia gravis
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The group of diseases that occur when antibodies develop and begin to destroy the body’s own cells is
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autoimmune diseases
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Smoking, drinking, nutrition, and lack of exercise are examples of
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predisposing factors related to life style
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A history of repeated, chronic infections, which includes sinopulmonary symptoms (e.g., sinus tenderness, cough, fever, funny nose, abnormal sputum, dyspnea) along with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss), is usually indicative of
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common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID)
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Immunodeficiency disorders result from
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a depressed or absent immune response
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Symptoms of Wilms tumor may include
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hematuria, pain, and hypertension
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The most common form of immunodeficiency is
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selective immunoglobulin A deficiency disease
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The most common childhood malignancy is
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leukemia
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Malignant tumors
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masses of cells that result from the reproduction of cancer cells
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy
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is progressive and causes crippling and immobility
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The primary treatment of phenylketonuria includes
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a protein restricted diet
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Dwarfism is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body, or hypopituitarism, occuring in children.
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True
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Products lacking FDA approval may mean ingredients listed outside the bottle may not be inside the bottle or in the amount listed.
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True
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Insulin reaction can be caused by?
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a missed meal
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Reyes syndrome has been linked with the use of aspirin to treat chickenpox and influenza.
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True
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Mutation
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Changes in the genetic code of a cell
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Antigen
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Stimulates the immune system to produce antobodies
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Neoplasm
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Tumor, or growth of new tissue
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Biopsy
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Excision of tissue for microscopic examination
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With proper therapy the prognosis for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is
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generally good
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Conditions often resulting from premature birth include
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necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), infantile respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), and retinopathy of prematurity
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Hypersecretion of human growth hormone (hGH) by the pituitary before puberty resulting in abnormal and accelerated growth is called
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none of the above
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_____ is a systemic, usually progressive inflammatory disease primarily affecting the spinal column.
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Ankylosing spondylitis
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Injections of vitamin B12, which must be continued for life, are the primary treatment for pernicious anemia.
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True
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Because anemia is a symptom of various diseases, it is important to determine the cause of the anemia.
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True
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Adrenal insufficiency, with progressive destruction of the adrenal gland, is called?
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Addison disease
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A congenital hypothyroid condition that causes mental and growth retaradation in the infant or young child is called?
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cretinism
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Homeostasis refers to
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internal stability of the body
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Tolerance of self-antigens is believed to commence during fetal life.
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True
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The person experiencing insulin shock requires simple sugar.
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True
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HIV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and through contaminated blood and blood products.
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True
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The presence of a painless lump or nodule on the thyroid gland should raise the suggestion of?
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cancer of the thyroid gland
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Oral hypoglycemic agents such as DiaBeta and Glucophage can cause symptoms similar to diabetic coma.
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False
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Insufficient secretion of PTH by the parathyroid gland is called?
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hypoparathyroidism
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A congenital spinal defect in which no herniation of spinal cord or meninges exists is called myelomeningocele.
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False
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The acquired immunity that results when a person has a disease is
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active
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Benign tumors
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tend to remain encapsulated
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Anaphylaxis, serum sickness, arthralgia, and status asthmaticus are
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systemic manifestation of severe allergic responses
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Congenital disease are
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Condition existing at birth or even before birth.
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Cryptorchidism is
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the failure of the testicle(s) to descend into the scrotum
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Symptoms of fever, joint pain, malaise, weight loss, and the characteristic butterfly rash are indications of
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systemic lupus erythematosus.
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The disease tht involves impairment of intestinal motility, which causes obstruction of the distal colon, is called
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Hirschsprung disease
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The use of hormone therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer continues to evolve.
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True
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Cystic fibrosis (CF), a chronic dysfunction of the exocrine glands, primarily attacks the
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lungs and digestive system
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Side effects of nonsteriodal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include GI ulceration and bleeding, blood dyscrasias, tinnitus, rash, hypersensitivity reactions and liver toxicity.
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True
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Which of the following most accurately states the orderly steps in making a diagnosis?
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Medical history, physical examination, diagnostic tests, diagnosis, integration of results, treatment
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Mechanical and chemical barriers, the inflammatory response, and the immune response are
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included in the body’s natural defense system against infection
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The most common cyanotic cogenital heart defect that is actually a combination of four defects is called
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tetralogy of Fallot.
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There are no cures for connective tissue diseases, and treatment is only palliative.
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True
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Which of the following correctly states the sequence of an allergic response within the body most?
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Exposure to allergen stimulates production of IgE antibodies that can sebsequently trigger symptoms of allergy
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PKU is an inborn error in metabolism of amino acids causing brain damage and mental retardation when not corrected.
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True
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The patient with a platelet deficiency and the inability of blood to clot has
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idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
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Insulin and glucagon are produced by the
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pancreas
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The infant born with fetal alcohol syndrome may experience alcohol withdrawal shortly after birth.
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True
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A deficiency in the release of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) by the posterior pituitary gland causes?
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diabetes insipidus
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Prevention measures for HIV infection relate directly to avoiding risk factors such as hugging, touching, and handshaking.
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False
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Myxedema, or severe hypothyroidism, has its onset during pregnancy.
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False
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In preventative health care the emphasis is on
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prophylactic medical services
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The philosophy of hospice affirms life and neither hastens nor postpones death.
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True
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Dysfunction of the endocrine system results in decreased or increased secretion of hormones.
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True
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Tumor grade is determined through microscopic evaluation of the tumor or a biopsy specimen.
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True
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The inflammatory disease of the CNS that attacks the myelin sheath is
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multiple sclerosis
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Symptoms and signs of diabetic coma include?
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Increased thirst, Frequent urination, Fatigue, Nausea and vomiting, Shortness of breath, Stomach pain, Fruity breath odor, A very dry mouth, A rapid heartbeat
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Decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid and the resulting shortage of the intrinsic factor cause
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Pernicious anemia
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Leukemia is characterized by an abmormal decrease in the number if immature white blood cells.
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False
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Signs of disease
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include abnormal objective findings
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The disease that begins with inflammation and edema of the synovial membranes surrounding the joint is
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rheumatoid arthritis.
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Sudden infant death syndrome is
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the number one cause of death of infants between age 1 and 12 months
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All patients with HIV will develop full-blown AIDS.
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False
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Immunoglobulins that provide the ability to recognize foreign organisms stimulating the antigen-antibody reaction are called
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B-cells.
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Among some common concerns about the health issues of older adults are substance abuse and nutritional problems.
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True
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A child in the emergency room with multiple bruising of unknown cause and thrombocytopenia may be exhibiting signs of
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idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
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Serious side effects of uncontrolled diarrhea in the infant or child include
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dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
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Autoimmune diseases occur when autoantibodies develop and begin to destroy the body’s own cells.
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True
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Opportunistic infections can emerge as a result of deficiencies of the immune system.
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True
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The syndrome caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, which results in the excessive circulating cortisol levels, fatigue, muscular weakness, and changes in the body appearance is called?
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Cushing syndrome
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T-cell lymphocytes are produced in the
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thymus gland
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An autoimmune condition in which erythrocytes are destroyed by antibodies causing the patient to experience fatigue, chills, fever, dyspnea, and jaundice is
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autoimmune hemolytic anemia
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Autoimmune diseases occur only in the blood and kymphatic systems.
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False
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Rh factor incompatibility occurs when the mother through prior pregnancy has become sensitized to thee Rh factor of the fetal red blood cells.
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True
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Which of the following statements is true about lead poisoning?
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The child suffering from acute lead intoxication presents a medical emergency.
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Closure of patent ductus arteriosus may be achieved by medication or by surgical closure of the ductus.
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True
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Predisposing factors of disease
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make a person or group more vulnerable to disease
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In hydrocephalus a large amount of cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the skull causing increased intracranial pressure.
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True
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Cerebral palsy is
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a result of damage to the central nervous system (CNS)
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Necrotizing enterocolitis is an acute inflammatory process resulting from ischemic necrosis of he lining of the bronchial tubes.
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False
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Congential hip dysplasia
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is an abnormal development of the hip joint
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Polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss, and fatigue, are the principal symptoms of?
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diabetes mellitus
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Hypersecretion of hGH that causes overgrowth of the hands and feet, abnormal thickening of the bones of the face, and excessive overgrowth of the soft tissue, occuring after puberty is called?
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acromegaly
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When the immune system reacts appropriately to an antigen and homeostasis is maintained it is termed
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immunocompetent
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Gene therapy is now common intervention and proven cure for many diseases.
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False
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A simple, or nontoxic, goiter results from?
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inadequate amounts of iodine in the diet
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The holistic concept of medical care focuses on
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the needs of the whole person: spiritual, cognitive, social, physical, and emotional
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Diabetes, which has its onset during pregnancy, is called?
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gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
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The production of copious thick and sticky mucus that accumulates and blocks glandular ducts is characteristic of
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cystic fibrosis (CF).
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Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome are examples of
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genetic, chromosomal diseases which are not inherited.