Essentials in Communication

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colloquial
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ordinary or familiar speech that is appropriate for informal or casual settings
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idioms
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fixed and often colorful expressions whose meanings cannot be understood from the combined meanings of individual words.
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jargon
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technical language
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Equivocal
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open to more than one interpretation
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4 functions of language
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define, evaluate, influence, reflect
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disfluences
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phrases such as “ahh” or “mmmm”
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haptics
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nonverbal behavior that involves touching
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emblems
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gestures that directly translate to a word or phrase
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affect displays
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communicate emotions
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adaptors
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used to satisfy a physical or emotional need
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proxemics’ 4 zones
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intimate, personal, social, and public
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paralanguage
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study of nonverbal vocal messages (tone, volume, pitch)
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syntax
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grammatical arrangement of words and phrases
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stages of the listening process
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1. Selecting/ 2. Understanding/ 3. Evaluating/ 4. Responding /5. Remembering
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mnemonics
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a short rhyme, phrase, acronym, or other mental technique used to ease the task of memorization
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semantics
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language system that governs meaning
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knapp’s relational model
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initiating -> experimenting -> intensifying -> integrating -> BONDING <-differentiating <- circumscribing<-stagnating<-avoiding<-terminating
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altercasting
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a statement that places the listener to consider a problem from a specific perspective
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phatic communication
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socially significant messages used to open channels of communication
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5 stages of conversation
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opening ->Feedforward->Business->Feedback ->Closing
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maxim
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a general truth or code of conduct
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4 types of interviews
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selection, info. gathering, problem-solving, persuasive
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4 types of groups
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integrated work team, quality circle, focus group, advisory group
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symposium
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a conference or meeting to discuss a particular subject
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consensus
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general agreement
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cohesion
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working together to create a united whole
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Pedestrian
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Lowest level of cohesion
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Passive
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Example: Classroom
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Selected
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Common interest or goal
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Concerted
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Very cohesive
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Organized
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Most cohesive
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Criteria for Visual Aids
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1. Consider the audience. 2. Be focused. 3. Keep it simple. 4. Make it big. 5. Make it attractive.
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Symposium
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Each member of the group delivers a short speech
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Panel Discussion
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Info is presented to an audience via group discussion.
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methods of delivery most suitable for informal group presentations
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extemporaneous/impromptu
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most suitable for speaking to inform
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demonstrate/ describe/ train/ answer
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4 types of organizational patterns
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spatial/ cause and effect/ topical/ chronological

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