ESL Certification Test

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Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
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The language ability needed for casual conversation. This usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of CLD students (i.e, playground language). It’s everyday, straightforrward communication skills that are helped by contextual supports such as gestures.
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CALLA
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(Congitive academic language learning approach) A methos of instruction that is grounded in the cognitive approach and focuses on the explicit instruction of learning strategies and the development of critical thinking as a means of acquiring deep levels of language proficiency.
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CALP
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(Cognitive academic language proficiency) the language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.
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Congitive academic language proficiency
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The language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.
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Communicative Language Teaching
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Stressing the importance of language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching
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Communicative-based instruction
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The communicative approach assumes that language production contains an infinite number of possible language combinations, so memorizing patterns and rules does little to prepare language learners for authentic language use.
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Demonstrative pronouns
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This, that, these, those, none and neither are examples.
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Direct method
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A grammatical approach that focuses less on explicit instruction of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.
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Dual-immersion programs
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Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages.
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EFL
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English as a Foreign Language
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ELL
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Individuals who are in the process of transitioning from a home or native language to English
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ESL
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( English as a Second Language) A programming model in which linguistically diverse students are instructed in the use of English as a means of communication and learning. This model is often used when native speakers of multiple first languages are present within the same classroom.
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Formative Evaluations
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A type of on-going or in process evaluation that allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson to ensure CLD student comprehension
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Homophones
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Words that are pronounced in the same way as one or more other words, but is different in meaning and sometimes spelling, as are \”hair\” and \”hare\”.
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Immersion Programs
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Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages
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Krashen’s Natural Approach
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The notion of stages of second language acquisition is consistent with what Krashen has referred to as the natural order hypothesis
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Lau vs. Nichols
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Equal vs. Equitable treatment for ELL/CLD students
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LEP
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An individual who is in the process of acquiring English as his or her second language. (Limited English Proficient)
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Morphology
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The study of how words are formed including aspect such as compounds, derivations, and so forth
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NABE
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National Association of Bilingual Education
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Natural Approach
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This hypothesis asserts that language is acquired in a more or less natural order – a predictable sequence of progression
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Phonology
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The study of sounds in speech, including their distribution and pronunciation
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Semantics
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The study of the meaning in language; the analysis of the meaning of words, phrases, sentences
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Silent period
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The first stage of the process of second language acquisition, the preproduction stage, is often called the silent period because the CLD students may not communicate during this period except in nonverbal ways.
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Stages of second-language development
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Preproduction, Early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency
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Syntax
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The pattern of structure of word order in sentences, clauses and phrases’ the grammatical rules that govern language
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Zone of proximal development
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The area between the level of independent performance and the level of assisted performance.
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Structured English Immersion
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pulled out for structured instruction in english so that content in comprehensible
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Submersion with primary language Support
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Aids teacher in small group instruction. Uses L1 to support English content classes.
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Self-Contained
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monolingual English instruction using ESL methods to teach oral and written English.

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