Epidemiology Quiz 1

True or False: Robert Koch developed four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease.
True

True or False: Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability and mortality in single individuals.
False

True or False: It is possible for a single case of a disease to represent an epidemic.
True

True or False: John Graunt is said to be the first to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics.
True

True or False: Working during the Renaissance, Paracelsus was one of the founders of the field of health education.
False

True or False: Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease caused by Anthracis pestis.
False

True or False: The Tuskegee study exemplified a research project that violated ethical standards for research.
True

True or False: Epidemiology can help solve a variety of today’s health-related problems, ranging from smoking to youth violence.
True

True or False: A population is defined as all of the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together.
True

True or False: Contact with a disease-causing factor or the amount of the factor that affects a group of individuals is referred to as exposure.
True

True or False: The history of epidemiology originated in the early 1940s.
False

True or False: Primary prevention involves the prevention of disease spread.
False

True or False: Alexander Fleming discovered the antimicrobial properties of Penicillium rotavirum.
False

True or False: Tertiary prevention is directed toward the later stages of pathogenesis and involves programs for restoring the patient’s optimal functioning.
True

True or False: The term epidemiologic transition describes a shift in the patterns of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infectious diseases to causes associated with chronic diseases.
True

True or False: A pandemic is an epidemic occurring worldwide or crossing international boundaries.
True

True or False: Descriptive epidemiology refers to studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
True

True or False: Epidemiology is an observational science that capitalizes on naturally occurring situations.
True

A vaccine that provided immunity to smallpox was created by:
A. John Snow
B. Ramazini
C. Sir Percival Pott
D. Edward Jenner
D. Edward Jenner

Epidemiologic methods can be applied to which of the following public health-related fields:
A. Health education
B. Health care administration
C. Environmental health
D. All of the above
D. All of the above

Variation in the occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes in populations relates most closely to:
A. Population focus
B. Distribution
C. Quantification
D. None of the above
B. Distribution

The physician who determined that a human disease was caused by a specific living organism and proceeded to develop four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease was:
A. Edward Jenner
B. Robert Koch
C. William Farr
D. John Snow
B. Robert Koch

The probability that an event will occur—an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age—is known as:
A. Risk factor
B. Risk assessment
C. Risk
D. None of the above
C. Risk

Illness due to a specific disease or health condition is known as:
A. Exposure
B. Risk factor
C. Morbidity
D. Mortality
C. Morbidity

Whether a contaminated food such as tomatoes caused an outbreak of gastrointestinal disease is a simple example of:
A. A causal association
B. The 1918 influenza pandemic
C. A population
D. All of the above
A. A causal association

A method for providing quantitative measurements of risks to health is known as:
A. A natural experiment
B. The interdisciplinary approach
C. Risk assessment
D. Disease management
C. Risk assessment

Any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic is known as:
A. Exposure
B. Risk factor
C. Distribution
D. Determinant
D. Determinant

Specializations that contribute to epidemiology include:
A. Sociology
B. History
C. Law
D. All of the above
D. All of the above

Which of the following disease outbreaks occurred between 1346 and 1352 and claimed up to one-third of the population of Europe:
A. Cholera epidemic
B. Black death
C. Pandemic influenza
D. Tuberculosis epidemic
B. Black death

The individual whose name is associated with a natural experiment during an outbreak of cholera in London was:
A. William Farr
B. John Snow
C. Edward Jenner
D. Robert Koch
B. John Snow

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy is known as a(n):
A. None of the following
B. Prevalence
C. Epidemic
D. Pandemic
C. Epidemic

Which of the following is NOT considered a use of epidemiology:
A. To diagnosis the dimensions and distributions of disease within a community
B. To study the workings of health services in the community
C. To provide healthcare services to specific individuals
D. To search for causes of disease and other health outcomes
C. To provide healthcare services to specific individuals

Operations research illustrates which of the following uses of epidemiology:
A. Historical use
B. Health services use
C. Community health use
D. Risk assessment use
B. Health services use

Epidemiology searches for associations between exposures and:
A. Quantification
B. Determinants
C. Health outcomes
D. All of the above
C. Health outcomes

Which of the following is considered a key characteristic of epidemiology?
A. Distribution
B. Population focus
C. Quantification
D. All of the above
D. All of the above