EPID 4070: Test 2

Ecologic study
Study where the unit of analysis is the group, not the individual; can be used for generating hypotheses; level of exposure for each individual in the unit studied is unknown

Ecologic comparison study
involves an assessment of the correlation between exposure rates and disease rates among different groups over the same time period

Ecologic trend study
involves correlation of changes in exposure with changes in disease within the same community, country, or other aggregate unit

Ecologic fallacy
observations made at the group level may not represent the exposure-disease relationship at the individual level

Ecologic fallacy
occurs when incorrect inferences about the individual are made form group level data

Cross-sectional study
study during a single period of observation where exposure and disease histories are collected simultaneously; exposure and disease measures obtained at the individual level

Case-Control Studies
study in which one group has the disease of interest, and a comparable group is free from the disease

Case-Control Studies
study that identifies possible causes of disease by finding out how two groups (one control and one case) differ with respect to exposure to some factor

Temporality
refers to the timing of information about cause and effect

Cohort
a population group, or subset thereof, that is followed a period of time

Cohort
study in which members experience a common exposure associated with a specific setting or they share a non-specific exposure associated with a general classification

Wade Hampton Frost
popularized cohort analysis method–arranged tuberculosis mortality rates in a table with age on one axis and year of death on the other

life table method
gives estimates for survival during time intervals and present the cumulative survival probability at the end of the interval

cohort life table
shows the mortality experience of all persons born during a particular year

Period life table
enables us to project the future life expectancy of persons born during the year as well as the remaining life expectancy of persons who have attained a certain age

YPPL
years of potential life lost

DALYs
disability-adjusted life years

YPLL
computed for each invididual in a population by subtracting that person’s life span from the average life expectancy of the population

DALYs
adds the time a person has a disability to the time lost to early death

Cohort study
start with a group of subjects who lack a positive history of the outcome of interest and are at risk for the outcome; include at least two observation points

Population-based cohort study
study that includes either an entire population or a representative sample of the population

Exposure-based cohort study
study conducive for rare exposures–certain groups, such as occupational groups, may have higher exposures than the general population to specific hazards

Prospective cohort study
study characterized by determination of exposure levels at baseline (present) and follow-up for occurrence of disease at some time i the future

Retrospective cohort study
study tha makes use of historical data to determine exposure level at some baseline in the past

Historical Prospective Cohort study
study that makes use of both retrospective features and prospective features; also known as an ambispective cohort study

Nested Case-Control Study
a type of case control-study in which cases and controls are drawn from the population in a cohort study

relative risk
(incidence rate in the exposed)/(incidence rate in the unexposed)

Risk of disease in exposed group
Ie

Risk of disease in unexposed group
Iu

Risk of disease in population
Ip

relative risk
Ie/Iu

attributable risk
Ie-Iu

attributable fraction
(Ie-Iu)/Ie

population attributable risk
Ip-Iu

Population attributable fraction
(Ip-Iu)/Ip3

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