Environmental Science – Final Review

An area of land in which there is little or no human development is referred to as a
Wilderness
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary are of study that deals with all of the following EXCEPT
None of the above:
Politics / Economics / Ethics
An ecosystem approach
Would include the study of how humans interact with the natural world
All are changes in Yellowstone’s ecosystem after wolves were introduced EXCEPT
An increase in coyote population
What did occur:
an increase in willow and aspen stands / a reduction in elk populations / and an increase in beaver populations
The result of the 1997 Kyoto Summit was an international commitment to
Reduce emissions of greenhouses gases
In which region has the original, natural ecosystem been replaced by agriculture?
The Middle US
Global Security is a concern in environmental science because
An increased number of people are competing for scarce resources
Which region of the country has serious water contamination problems from toxic chemicals that bioaccumulate in fatty tissue of fish, birds, and top predators?
The Great Lakes and Industrial Northeast
Ethics is
a branch of philosophy
Environmental ethics can best be defined as
Examining the moral basis of environmental responsibility and its extent
Biocentrism is also known as
Life-centered environmental ethics
The theory of environmental ethics espouses that all forms of life have the right to exist is referred to as
Bocentric
The concept of environmental justice emerged
When studies demonstrated that toxic waste was more likely disposed of in low income areas
Sustainable development means
Development that allows nature to replenish itself
Risk based corrective action was formed to
Protect environmental ecological resources
Most environmental decisions involve
A balance between the costs of a risk and the economic impact of removing that risk
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of sustainable development
Assigning value to everything
When people have shared ownership of a resource, economists argue that there is a strong tendency to overexploit that resource. This is referred to as:
Misfortune of Shared Ownership
Point at which there is no significant health or environmental risk
Negligible risk
The four steps in the risk assessment process are
Hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization
This step in the risk assessment process determines potential health concerns from exposure to certain amounts of toxin, usually through laboratory tests on animals, as well as human health data
Exposure assessment
The scientific method is
Reliable, impartial, and limited in when it can be used (all of these are correct)
Photosynthesis occurs in
Plants
The first law of thermodynamics states that
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
The second law of thermodynamics states that
Energy is the ability to do work
Process whereby organisms break down large molecules to obtain energy
Respiration
Which of the following is an example of abiotic factor?
The climate of the community
Natural selection is the process that determines
Which individuals within a species will reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation
The development of herbicide resistance in populations of weeds over several generations is an example of
Evolution
This concept states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place and the same time
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Habitat can best be defined as
The place an organism lives
Secondary consumers are
Carnivores
What is the term used to describe food chains which overlap and intersect
Food web
In addition to burning fossil fuels, which activity has caused significant changes to the carbon cycle?
Conversion of forests to agricultural lands
A community of living organisms interacting with one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is called
An ecosystem
Grazing animals and the grasses they eat have both evolved in response to each others influence. this process is known as
Coevolution
Which of the following organisms is a primary producer
Fungi
Which of the following organisms is a secondary consumer
Wolf
In a mutualistic relationship
Both species benefit
Each step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem is known as a
Trophic level
The relationship between frogs and insects is an example of
A predator-prey relationship
Which biome is characterized by organisms which are inactive during the day and burrow underground?
Desert
Which biome is characterized by high levels of rainfall brought in from cool coastal waters and slow evaporation leaving a lot of moisture to sustain large evergreens
Temperate rainforest
Which biome is characterized by tree frogs, large vines, and fruit-eating birds and bats
Tropical rainforest
The two major factors influencing vegetation in biomes are
Precipitation and temperature
Savannas are found in
Tropical parts of Africa
Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) have been heavily impacted by humans because
Both they are near the oceans and have a moderate climate
Human impact on temperate forests include
Farming, logging, population centers
All of these are correct
Which group of organisms forms the base of the energy pyramid in a pelagic marine ecosystem?
Plankton
In addition to northern latitudes, patches of tundra-like plant communities are also found
On mountain tops
Which is an example of secondary succession?
A burning field
Primary succession is
A progression that begins with a total lack of organisms
Ecologists have learned that succession is influenced by many factors other than climate alone including
Invasive species, disease, human land use history, and seed dispersal
K-strategists
Are long-lived organisms
By feeding plants to animals, and harvesting animal products, what percent of the energy in the original plan is lost
90
The size of the population of a particular organism that can be supported by the local environment is known as the
Carrying capacity
The r-strategy in reproduction includes the production of offspring which
Are provided with little food and parental care
What is the term used to describe a shallow, partially enclosed area where freshwater enters the ocean?
Estuary
Seaweed and other attached marine organisms prefer to grow in which of the following regions
Benthic
You would find a temperate rainforest along the coasts for all of the following states except
Northern New York
Photosynthetic free-floating marine organisms are called
Phytoplankton
Which of the following is the correct sequence of phases in a typical population growth curve
Lag, exponential, stable equilibrium
Which phase of a population growth curve is characterized by very slow growth due to reproduction and offspring growth?
Lag phase
Terms used to describe factors (or sets of factors) that limit population size (limiting factors) include
Extrinsic and intrinsic
Factors that control populations that come from outside the population are known as
Extrinsic limiting factors
Ecologists refer to the maximum sustainable population for an area as
Carrying capacity
Which condition is necessary for a population to grow?
Natality must exceed mortality
A measure of the land area required to provide the resources and absorb the wastes of a population is referred to as the
Ecological footprint
Two ways to reduce your carbon footprint are
Walk or bike more, and choose wind power for your electricity
Which organism is affected the most by the accumulation of waste
Bacteria
K-strategists are
Large and long-lived and controlled by density-dependent factors
Which of the following is NOT an environmental factor limiting population size
Disease
Deer invest a great deal of energy in a few offspring that have a good chance of living to reproduce. They are said to be
K-strategists
Oysters produce a million eggs of which only a few find sustainable habitat to live. they are said to be
R-strategists
Movement out of an area that was once one’s place of residence
Emigration
The remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago is commonly referred to as
Fossil fuels
Electricity is both a way that energy is consumed and a way that it is
Supplied
In order for a nation to participate in the Industrial Revolution, they had to have
A source of coal
Which country has the highest per capita energy use for transportation
United States
The price of a liter of gasoline is determined by
The cost of processing crude oil into gasoline
The cost of purchasing crude oil
State and federal taxes
All of the above
Choose the correct historical sequence of fuel use in the US from 1800to the present
Wood, coal, oil, gas
Almost all electrical energy is produced as a result of
Burning fossil fuels
Which of the following is a renewable method to generate electricity
Geothermal
Hydroelectric
Wind
All of the above
Biomass such as_____ is used by much of the developing world as its energy source
Wood
What percentage of the world’s commercial energy is furnished by fossil fuels
80%
Which of the following is included in the alternative to drilling for oil in ANWAR
Which fossil fuel is the most abundant
Coal
Which form of coal is relatively abundant and most widely used
Bituminous
Which of the following processes involves removing materials from the top of a vein of coal to get to the coal beneath
Surface mining
Solar, geothermal, and tidal energy are forms of
Renewable resources
The best sites for tidal hydroelectric plants are
Fast flowing rivers near the coast
Environmental problems associated with geothermal energy include
Air pollution, corrosion of pipes, and may be toxic to fish
Unlike batteries, fuel cells
Run continuously and do not need to be recharged
Environmental problems associate with wind power are
Hazardous to birds, vibrations cause structural problems, and noise and visual pollution
Naturally occurring substances that can be extracted under current conditions are called
Resources
Heat energy from the Earth’s core
Geothermal energy
Known deposits from which materials can be extracted profitable under current economic and technological conditions are called
Reserves
The first goal for developing nuclear energy was to
Produce bombs
One of the greatest terrorism-related nuclear threats is from
Dirty bombs
Choose the correct sequence of steps in the nuclear fuel cycle
Mining, enrichment, fabrication
Which one of the following processes involves increasing the U-235 content of the ore from 0.7% to 3%
Enrichment
_________ is a controversial location proposed as a repository for long-term storage of nuclear waste in the United States
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
What radioactive isotope is generally used to fuel a controlled nuclear chain reaction
Uranium 235
Decomposition of an atoms’ nucleus with the release of energy
Biodiversity is a broad term used to describe the
Diversity of genes
Diversity of species
Diversity of ecosystems
All of these are correct
Extinction of a species in one area of its range is called
Local extinction
Over the past few hundred years, humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as
1000 times
Which of the following is NOT a technique for managing wildlife
NOT —> Introduction of exotic species
YES —>
Establishment of refuges
Predator control
Habitat management
Species are more likely to become extinct if they
Have both a low population density and reproductive rate
Which of the following is an example of a species that is not likely to become extinct soon
Rabbits
Which is the greatest cause of extinction
Habitat alteration
The Endangered Species Act of 1973
Gave the federal government jurisdiction over any species that were designated as endangered
The taxonomic group that displays the greatest biodiversity is
Insects
Those species that could become extinct if a critical factor in their environment were changed
Threatened species
Process of changing the natural community to encourage the increase in populations of certain desirable species
Habitat management
Early towns were usually built
Near rivers, lakes, and oceans
Large-scale migration to cities was caused by which of the following
Increased immigration from Europe
Increased job opportunities in cities
Cultural activties in cities
All of these are correct
Which of the following encouraged suburban growth
Rising automobile usage
The impacts of urban sprawl include
Increased traffic congestion
Air pollution
Loss of habitat
All of these are correct
Characteristics of a smart or sustainable community may include
Promoting economic success
Seeking to protect and enhance the environment
Enhancing a sense of community
All of the above
“Green buildings” have been built over the past few years using a standard called
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Characteristics of high-performance green buildings are
Low flow water fixtures
Location near public transportation
Native vegetation used in landscaping
All of these are correct
An example of a local growth management action would be
To establish growth limits by restricting building permits
Mass transportation systems are often underfunded because they are
Development along transportation routes
Zoning
Large, regional urban center
Megalopolis
Unplanned suburban growth
Urban sprawl
Which term describes the movement of large plates on the surface of the Earth
Plate tectonics
________ increase the decomposition rate of organic matter
High rainfalls
Land has characteristics that influence how it can be used, including
Soil, climate, and degree of slope
Which of the following do plants need to live
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
ALL of these are correct
Soil building begins with the physical fragmentation of layers of rock known as
Parent material
Decaying organic material is called
Humus
Soil erosion is linked to which of the following environmental issues
Soil pollution
The crust and solid outer mantle of the Earth
Lithosphere
Physical and chemical breakdown of parent material into soil
Weathering
Series of layers seen as one digs down into soil
Soil profile
Sustainable agriculture utilizes methods that
Do not deplete soil, water, air, or wildlife resources
“Organically grown” is a legally defined term which requires that
Organic farms be certified
Organic farms must increase soil fertility
Prohibits the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers
All of these are correct
Which is a typical method used by organic farmers to control pests
Predator or beneficial insects such as the ladybug
A genetically modified organism has had one or more
Genes altered
The price and availability of chemical fertilizers is strongly influenced by
the price of oil an the world market
Increased crop yields in the US are the result of
Improved agricultural methods
More efficient machinery
The application of fertilizers
All of these are correct
Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with pesticides
Bio-accumulation
Pesticide resistance is
Pesticide tolerant individuals who survive and reproduce, which makes the pesticide less effective for future pest generations