Environmental Science – Final Review

An area of land in which there is little or no human development is referred to as a
Wilderness

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary are of study that deals with all of the following EXCEPT
None of the above:
Politics / Economics / Ethics

An ecosystem approach
Would include the study of how humans interact with the natural world

All are changes in Yellowstone’s ecosystem after wolves were introduced EXCEPT
An increase in coyote population
What did occur:
an increase in willow and aspen stands / a reduction in elk populations / and an increase in beaver populations

The result of the 1997 Kyoto Summit was an international commitment to
Reduce emissions of greenhouses gases

In which region has the original, natural ecosystem been replaced by agriculture?
The Middle US

Global Security is a concern in environmental science because
An increased number of people are competing for scarce resources

Which region of the country has serious water contamination problems from toxic chemicals that bioaccumulate in fatty tissue of fish, birds, and top predators?
The Great Lakes and Industrial Northeast

Ethics is
a branch of philosophy

Environmental ethics can best be defined as
Examining the moral basis of environmental responsibility and its extent

Biocentrism is also known as
Life-centered environmental ethics

The theory of environmental ethics espouses that all forms of life have the right to exist is referred to as
Bocentric

The concept of environmental justice emerged
When studies demonstrated that toxic waste was more likely disposed of in low income areas

Sustainable development means
Development that allows nature to replenish itself

Risk based corrective action was formed to
Protect environmental ecological resources

Most environmental decisions involve
A balance between the costs of a risk and the economic impact of removing that risk

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of sustainable development
Assigning value to everything

When people have shared ownership of a resource, economists argue that there is a strong tendency to overexploit that resource. This is referred to as:
Misfortune of Shared Ownership

Point at which there is no significant health or environmental risk
Negligible risk

The four steps in the risk assessment process are
Hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization

This step in the risk assessment process determines potential health concerns from exposure to certain amounts of toxin, usually through laboratory tests on animals, as well as human health data
Exposure assessment

The scientific method is
Reliable, impartial, and limited in when it can be used (all of these are correct)

Photosynthesis occurs in
Plants

The first law of thermodynamics states that
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

The second law of thermodynamics states that
Energy is the ability to do work

Process whereby organisms break down large molecules to obtain energy
Respiration

Which of the following is an example of abiotic factor?
The climate of the community

Natural selection is the process that determines
Which individuals within a species will reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation

The development of herbicide resistance in populations of weeds over several generations is an example of
Evolution

This concept states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place and the same time
Competitive Exclusion Principle

Habitat can best be defined as
The place an organism lives

Secondary consumers are
Carnivores

What is the term used to describe food chains which overlap and intersect
Food web

In addition to burning fossil fuels, which activity has caused significant changes to the carbon cycle?
Conversion of forests to agricultural lands

A community of living organisms interacting with one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is called
An ecosystem

Grazing animals and the grasses they eat have both evolved in response to each others influence. this process is known as
Coevolution

Which of the following organisms is a primary producer
Fungi

Which of the following organisms is a secondary consumer
Wolf

In a mutualistic relationship
Both species benefit

Each step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem is known as a
Trophic level

The relationship between frogs and insects is an example of
A predator-prey relationship

Which biome is characterized by organisms which are inactive during the day and burrow underground?
Desert

Which biome is characterized by high levels of rainfall brought in from cool coastal waters and slow evaporation leaving a lot of moisture to sustain large evergreens
Temperate rainforest

Which biome is characterized by tree frogs, large vines, and fruit-eating birds and bats
Tropical rainforest

The two major factors influencing vegetation in biomes are
Precipitation and temperature

Savannas are found in
Tropical parts of Africa

Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) have been heavily impacted by humans because
Both they are near the oceans and have a moderate climate

Human impact on temperate forests include
Farming, logging, population centers
All of these are correct

Which group of organisms forms the base of the energy pyramid in a pelagic marine ecosystem?
Plankton

In addition to northern latitudes, patches of tundra-like plant communities are also found
On mountain tops

Which is an example of secondary succession?
A burning field

Primary succession is
A progression that begins with a total lack of organisms

Ecologists have learned that succession is influenced by many factors other than climate alone including
Invasive species, disease, human land use history, and seed dispersal

K-strategists
Are long-lived organisms

By feeding plants to animals, and harvesting animal products, what percent of the energy in the original plan is lost
90

The size of the population of a particular organism that can be supported by the local environment is known as the
Carrying capacity

The r-strategy in reproduction includes the production of offspring which
Are provided with little food and parental care

What is the term used to describe a shallow, partially enclosed area where freshwater enters the ocean?
Estuary

Seaweed and other attached marine organisms prefer to grow in which of the following regions
Benthic

You would find a temperate rainforest along the coasts for all of the following states except
Northern New York

Photosynthetic free-floating marine organisms are called
Phytoplankton

Which of the following is the correct sequence of phases in a typical population growth curve
Lag, exponential, stable equilibrium

Which phase of a population growth curve is characterized by very slow growth due to reproduction and offspring growth?
Lag phase

Terms used to describe factors (or sets of factors) that limit population size (limiting factors) include
Extrinsic and intrinsic

Factors that control populations that come from outside the population are known as
Extrinsic limiting factors

Ecologists refer to the maximum sustainable population for an area as
Carrying capacity

Which condition is necessary for a population to grow?
Natality must exceed mortality

A measure of the land area required to provide the resources and absorb the wastes of a population is referred to as the
Ecological footprint

Two ways to reduce your carbon footprint are
Walk or bike more, and choose wind power for your electricity

Which organism is affected the most by the accumulation of waste
Bacteria

K-strategists are
Large and long-lived and controlled by density-dependent factors

Which of the following is NOT an environmental factor limiting population size
Disease

Deer invest a great deal of energy in a few offspring that have a good chance of living to reproduce. They are said to be
K-strategists

Oysters produce a million eggs of which only a few find sustainable habitat to live. they are said to be
R-strategists

Movement out of an area that was once one’s place of residence
Emigration

The remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago is commonly referred to as
Fossil fuels

Electricity is both a way that energy is consumed and a way that it is
Supplied

In order for a nation to participate in the Industrial Revolution, they had to have
A source of coal

Which country has the highest per capita energy use for transportation
United States

The price of a liter of gasoline is determined by
The cost of processing crude oil into gasoline
The cost of purchasing crude oil
State and federal taxes
All of the above

Choose the correct historical sequence of fuel use in the US from 1800to the present
Wood, coal, oil, gas

Almost all electrical energy is produced as a result of
Burning fossil fuels

Which of the following is a renewable method to generate electricity
Geothermal
Hydroelectric
Wind
All of the above

Biomass such as_____ is used by much of the developing world as its energy source
Wood

What percentage of the world’s commercial energy is furnished by fossil fuels
80%

Which of the following is included in the alternative to drilling for oil in ANWAR

Which fossil fuel is the most abundant
Coal

Which form of coal is relatively abundant and most widely used
Bituminous

Which of the following processes involves removing materials from the top of a vein of coal to get to the coal beneath
Surface mining

Solar, geothermal, and tidal energy are forms of
Renewable resources

The best sites for tidal hydroelectric plants are
Fast flowing rivers near the coast

Environmental problems associated with geothermal energy include
Air pollution, corrosion of pipes, and may be toxic to fish

Unlike batteries, fuel cells
Run continuously and do not need to be recharged

Environmental problems associate with wind power are
Hazardous to birds, vibrations cause structural problems, and noise and visual pollution

Naturally occurring substances that can be extracted under current conditions are called
Resources

Heat energy from the Earth’s core
Geothermal energy

Known deposits from which materials can be extracted profitable under current economic and technological conditions are called
Reserves

The first goal for developing nuclear energy was to
Produce bombs

One of the greatest terrorism-related nuclear threats is from
Dirty bombs

Choose the correct sequence of steps in the nuclear fuel cycle
Mining, enrichment, fabrication

Which one of the following processes involves increasing the U-235 content of the ore from 0.7% to 3%
Enrichment

_________ is a controversial location proposed as a repository for long-term storage of nuclear waste in the United States
Yucca Mountain, Nevada

What radioactive isotope is generally used to fuel a controlled nuclear chain reaction
Uranium 235

Decomposition of an atoms’ nucleus with the release of energy

Biodiversity is a broad term used to describe the
Diversity of genes
Diversity of species
Diversity of ecosystems
All of these are correct

Extinction of a species in one area of its range is called
Local extinction

Over the past few hundred years, humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as
1000 times

Which of the following is NOT a technique for managing wildlife
NOT —> Introduction of exotic species
YES —>
Establishment of refuges
Predator control
Habitat management

Species are more likely to become extinct if they
Have both a low population density and reproductive rate

Which of the following is an example of a species that is not likely to become extinct soon
Rabbits

Which is the greatest cause of extinction
Habitat alteration

The Endangered Species Act of 1973
Gave the federal government jurisdiction over any species that were designated as endangered

The taxonomic group that displays the greatest biodiversity is
Insects

Those species that could become extinct if a critical factor in their environment were changed
Threatened species

Process of changing the natural community to encourage the increase in populations of certain desirable species
Habitat management

Early towns were usually built
Near rivers, lakes, and oceans

Large-scale migration to cities was caused by which of the following
Increased immigration from Europe
Increased job opportunities in cities
Cultural activties in cities
All of these are correct

Which of the following encouraged suburban growth
Rising automobile usage

The impacts of urban sprawl include
Increased traffic congestion
Air pollution
Loss of habitat
All of these are correct

Characteristics of a smart or sustainable community may include
Promoting economic success
Seeking to protect and enhance the environment
Enhancing a sense of community
All of the above

“Green buildings” have been built over the past few years using a standard called
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

Characteristics of high-performance green buildings are
Low flow water fixtures
Location near public transportation
Native vegetation used in landscaping
All of these are correct

An example of a local growth management action would be
To establish growth limits by restricting building permits

Mass transportation systems are often underfunded because they are

Development along transportation routes
Zoning

Large, regional urban center
Megalopolis

Unplanned suburban growth
Urban sprawl

Which term describes the movement of large plates on the surface of the Earth
Plate tectonics

________ increase the decomposition rate of organic matter
High rainfalls

Land has characteristics that influence how it can be used, including
Soil, climate, and degree of slope

Which of the following do plants need to live
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
ALL of these are correct

Soil building begins with the physical fragmentation of layers of rock known as
Parent material

Decaying organic material is called
Humus

Soil erosion is linked to which of the following environmental issues
Soil pollution

The crust and solid outer mantle of the Earth
Lithosphere

Physical and chemical breakdown of parent material into soil
Weathering

Series of layers seen as one digs down into soil
Soil profile

Sustainable agriculture utilizes methods that
Do not deplete soil, water, air, or wildlife resources

“Organically grown” is a legally defined term which requires that
Organic farms be certified
Organic farms must increase soil fertility
Prohibits the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers
All of these are correct

Which is a typical method used by organic farmers to control pests
Predator or beneficial insects such as the ladybug

A genetically modified organism has had one or more
Genes altered

The price and availability of chemical fertilizers is strongly influenced by
the price of oil an the world market

Increased crop yields in the US are the result of
Improved agricultural methods
More efficient machinery
The application of fertilizers
All of these are correct

Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with pesticides
Bio-accumulation

Pesticide resistance is
Pesticide tolerant individuals who survive and reproduce, which makes the pesticide less effective for future pest generations