Environmental Science Final Review
Which best describes the discipline of Environmental Science?
an applied, interdisciplinary field with an emphasis on problem solving
Solutions to environmental problems ________?
must be sustainable
Nonrenewable natural resources include _______?
coal, crude oil, minerals
Scientific method and knowledge is based on ________?
testing hypotheses that are built on observation
A hypothesis is________?
an educated guess that explains a phenomenon or answers a question
A paradigm is _______?
a dominant world view in science
John Muir, a great American environmentalist, felt that _________?
pristine wilderness should be preserved because “We need beauty as well as bread”
To whom do we owe the following quote: “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”?
Gro Harlem Brundtland
Sustainable development _______?
means consuming resources without compromising future availability
Tragedy of the Commons describes a situation in which _________
a resource belongs to everyone, but no one person or institution is responsible for the maintenance or preservation of that resource
Who brought the idea of “tragedy of the commons” to public attention?
An ________ is best defined as one who consider the impacts on the whole ecosystem, both the living and non-living, when considering an action.
Sara and Fred are having a discussion about the scientific method. Sarah makes the comment that every time she sees people carrying open umbrellas, she also sees several small car accidents. This is a(n) ________.
Environmental problems whose dimensions include differential exposure to risk from toxic wastes and air pollution or lack of access to the natural beauty of parks based on ethnicity or race are issues of __________.
By studying ancient civilizations, such as Greek and Roman empires and the Angkor civilization of Southeast Asia, historians have concluded that these civilizations declined party because of _________.
environmental degradation caused by unsustainable use of resources
The process by which several researchers review another researcher’s manuscript prior to publication to ensure research quality is referred to as ________.
Geothermal energy, wind and solar radiation are all examples of ________.
renewable natural resources
Who is credited for articulating the conservation ethic and for founding the U.S. Forest Service?
The Endangered Species Act, passes by Congress nearly four decades ago, has spawned a continuous series of debates between those who feel the ethical necessity, to protect species at the brink of extinction and others who feel that if we have to protect every habitat of every species at risk, then there will be a loss of jobs and a blow to an already shaky economy. This argument reflects a conflict between ______
anthropocentrists and ecocentrists
If a population of organisms has achieved overshoot then the population ________.
has grown past the capacity of the ecosystem to support it
The word “environment” originates from the ________.
French word “to surround”
Science rarely results in “proof”
In the modern, developed nations, we no longer depend on ecosystem services for our survival
The largest ecological, per person footprint belongs to _______.
Who suggested that “The hypothesis with the fewest number of assumptions is most likely to be true?
William of Ockham
The ore from which we get aluminum for cans and other uses come from _________.
In the manufacture of paper that is not recycled, what agent is used to bleach the paper?
hydrogen peroxide or chlorine
About what percent of the energy used to mine aluminum to make a soft drink could be saved if the can came from recycled cans?
Consider a lake such as Lake Belton with a pH of 8.0. If the lake is chemically treated to lower the pH to 7.0
the lake is now pH neutral and it has more hydrogen ions than at the pH 8.0
The figure above suggests that the biological pH values displayed in the graph
range from 1.5-8
_______ is defined as the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an
mass number (or atomic mass)
_______ are composed of amino acids
________ are the primary water-insoluble components of cell membranes
Which is an example of a positive feedback loop?
melting arctic snow exposing dark surfaces that heat up and cause further melting
Which represents an example of aerobic cellular respiration?
glucose+oxygen=water+carbon dioxide+ energy
The greatest source of nitrogen and phosphorus entering Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico is ______.
Compared to energy-flow in ecosystems, the flow of matter _________.
is conserved and recycled
Which of the following types of biological molecules are not polymers?
The greatest source of water in the hydrological cycle is ________.
River water held behind a dam is best described as a form of _______.
The trophic level of “producers” includes ________.
any organism producing biomass directly from photosynthesis
Which best describes net primary productivity?
the energy used by plants to make biomass after respiration
Biological nitrogen fixation (nitrogen fixation that is performed by living organisms) is carried out by _________.
several species of specialized bacteria and blue-green algae
The greatest planetary pool of nitrogen is ________.
Aquifers are _________.
porous rock formations located underground that store groundwater
The greatest human impact on the carbon cycle has been through _________.
combustion of fossil fuels
Hair, skin, muscles, and enzymes are all made up of ________.
Electronically charged atoms or combinations of atoms are called ________.
Some organisms such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria produce their own food by absorbing the sun’s radiation. These organisms are referred to as _______.
autotrophs or producers
The symptoms of the lake suggest ______
A water quality expert checked the level of dissolved oxygen in the lake and found it ________.
Low-normal on the surface but extremely low near the bottom
The same expert found that dissolved phosphorous and nitrogen levels were more than 10 times what they were 70 years ago. The primary sources of these are very likely from _________.
Agricultural and urban fertilizer runoff as well as increased urban wastewater discharges
A task force composed of water quality chemists, environmental landscape experts, townspeople and corn growers meet and share information. They decide that they must focus on _________ in the initial efforts to restore the lake.
Reducing fertilizer inputs into the lake by exploring alternative farming techniques, increasing the efficiency of the wastewater plant and using aerators to increase oxygen levels in the areas where streams flow into the lake
What happens to carbon dioxide when it is in contact with water?
A chemical reaction occurs and the water becomes more acidic
Why does water stick to a penny?
Water has cohesion
Solid carbon dioxide sublimes. What does the term “Sublime” mean?
Carbon dioxide transitions form the solid to the vapor state
The distinction of scientific study’s input into governmental solution of environmental problems is that it _________
Bypasses the private sector in making improvements by technology
In recent decades a great deal of scientific research and observation has been funded and published by commercial and corporate interests. Since this science may not have to pass the peer review process and may have motives for bias reporting it could be included in the diagram as _________
Lobbying by private sector
Legislation passed by congress is known as ________
Enforcement and elaboration of U.S. statutory law is given to ______
If domestic gas prices rise to $5.00 per gallon, conservation will increase, alternative fuels will be developed, and energy efficiency and our quality life will improve. This view is consistent with _______
The social changes in the U.S. in the second half of the 20th century gave right to environmental laws concerned primarily with _________
Reducing pollution caused by industry
Environmental damage from industry or land development has traditionally been labeled as ________ by economists.
The first national park in the world was ________
Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, published in the 1960’s ________
alerted the public to chemical pollutants, especially pesticides
The national environmental policy act (NEPA)
Required environmental impact statements for any projects funded by the U.S. government
The principle that “internal costs,” which are the costs and benefits borne by the buyer and seller alone, represent the true and full economics of all transactions is a principle of ________
The world bank was established in 1944 to _______
Fund economic development for all countries including dams and irrigation projects in the poorest countries
In modern market capitalist economies, the government intervenes to provide all of the following except
External costs include
Which of the following is an assumption of neoclassical economics?
Growth is good
The economic philosophy developed by Adam Smith
Advocates laissez-faire policies that many credit for the tremendous gains in material prosperity of industrial nations
Restrictive use and active management describe concepts that
Are central to current environmental policy in the U.S.
The Cuyahoga River
Caught fire several times in the 1950’s and 1960 because of the oil and industrial waste pollution
The greenest president of the U.S. was
This nation has made the decision to reforest its land and has benefitted economically as a result of having done so
In the U.S., wetlands are primarily considered to be _________
Useful to develop for economic purposes
Wetlands in the U.S.
Have increased because of human development
In the past, the economic principles in play with the fate of U.S. wetlands have been governed largely by
Traditional neoclassical cost-benefit analysis, excluding environmental damage
From the scenario above, one conclusion regarding the Gulf Coast damage from hurricane season of 2005 (Hurricane Katrina) is that __________
Wetland losses are improper economic perspectives leading to budget cuts were responsible in large part for the extent of damage
If you were a resident of southern Louisiana in 2009-2012, your most affective political response to try to lessen future hurricane damage might be to
Consider joining a local PAC, focused on wetlands restoration and flood control
Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring because
She was opposed to the overuse of pesticides
Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by
Moderate temperatures and moderate amounts of precipitation
Zebra mussels _________
Are an invasive, exotic species that clog water intake pipes at factories, power plants, and wastewater treatment facilities Are in Lake Belton
Zooplankton populations in Lake Eerie and the Hudson River have declined by up to 70% since the arrival of zebra mussels because
Zebra mussels feed on phytoplankton, which zooplankton need as a food source
Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ______
By definition, parasites _________ their host
Feed on and harm
Which of the following captures solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars
Grazing animals such as deer are ______
Primary consumers or herbivores
Zooplankton-eating fish are
Which of the following is true about top predators?
They are likely to be keystone species
Which terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity?
Which terrestrial biome has rich soil, makes productive farmland, and may be fry during some years
Microbes in our digestive tract which provide us with the vitamin biotin demonstrate a ______ association
A climax community always
Remains in place until a disturbance restarts succession
Of the following , _______ are pioneer species
Suffers intense herbivory from sea urchins
Millipedes, soil insects, and many ants
The statement, “hiking up a mountain in the southwestern U.S. is like walking from Mexico to Canada,” is meant to demonstrate that ________ changes rapidly as you change altitude and latitude
If the climate warms significantly, tundra permafrost may melt, exposing underlying rock. This may next lead to primary succession in the community. Of the following, ________ might be the first to populate an area after permafrost melts in response to global climate change
Intense hurricanes that may result from global warming can directly lead to ________ within impacted terrestrial communities
Some models of climate change from North America predict that the grassland regions of the prairie states will become warmer and dryer. This would result in ______
The need to develop varieties of agricultural crops that tolerate desert conditions
The relationship between flowering plants and caterpillars is best described as
The relationship between flowering plants and bees is best described as
A trophic cascade is the effect of ________ on _________
Top consumers; abundance of lower consumers
The figures demonstrates that it requires roughly ________ times more feed input to produce 1 kg of eggs compared of 1 kg of milk
The comparison shown in the figure is environmentally significant because _________
Production of beef and pork is resource-intensive
Thomas Malthus, and Anglican priest and advocate for the poor, warned against unchecked population growth. Why have his predictions not come true, despite enormous population increases?
The green revolution increased the amount of food
Robert Fogel won the Nobel Prize in economics in 1993. He has suggested that developing nations today are much like
England and France in the 1790’s
The largest cause of blindness in children worldwide is inadequate
Why did the Indonesian government support IPM (integrated pest management) agriculture in 1986?
Pesticide subsidies were expensive
Anemia can lead to serious complications, even death from bleeding, during childbirth. Anemia is a deficiency of which nutrient?
Is an agricultural practice of growing large stands of a single species
Recombinant DNA ______
Is the merging of DNA from unrelated organisms to create new genetic varieties
Raising _________ requires the most land and water
Composed of organic matter and is necessary to fertility and holding soil moisture
Increased our ability to obtain more food from the same area
Normal Borlaug, who passed away in 2009, pioneered the development of ________
Terracing, contour farming, intercropping, and crop rotation all _______
Techniques for conserving soil resources and fertility
The Conservation Reserve Program pays farmers to
Stop cultivating highly erodible land
The loss of more than 10% productivity in an arid area due to erosion, soil compaction, deforestation or overgrazing is _________
Which is NOT a part of the green revolution?
If a person is chronically undernourished, then he/she _______
Has inadequate calories for a healthy life
If a person is malnourished, then he/she
Is lacking s specific nutrient in the diet
About 50 million children world-wide under the age of 5 years suffer from protein and calorie deficiency. What technical name do we give this problem?
The Dust Bowl of the southern plains was one of the three great environmental disasters of all time. What disease proved fatal to people, especially children and elderly, who tried to survive the drought?
Which country has provided an international seed bank for all other nations?
What caused the Dust Bowl on the southern plains of the U.S.?
Extensive plowing of the prairie, exposing the soil
Seed banks are important for ______
Protecting genetic diversity
Can bring economic benefits and food security to man developing regions
Over-irrigation can result in_____
Soil salinization and waterlogging
To make organic fertilizer by composting, you do NOT include ______
Shredded plastic and metals, waste from animal butchering
The consequences of over-fertilizing include
Eutrophication and dead zones in aquatic ecosystems
The A horizon of soils consists of
Mostly organic material
This man is called the “father of the green revolution.” He is credited with saving one billion lives. He won the novel prize for peace in 1970.
Why have most bioengineered crops been modified for “resistance” traits?
These traits have the economic potential to save on production costs
If GM crops can decrease pesticide use, why are environmentalists still concerned about them?
Inserted genes can spread to non-target species
The lumen of your coronary artery, the primary vessel that feeds blood to your heart, is about the size of
The inside diameter of a retractable ball-point pen
Blood is like quicksand and/or ketchup because all of these liquids demonstrate
Non-Newtonian fluid dynamics
Assume that the scales for graphs (a) and (b) are identical. Compare the graphs. Which of the following statements is true?
The toxicant shown in (b) has a lower toxicity than the toxicant shown in (a)
That flat line at the left in (b) represents
No response was observed below the threshold dose
The graph in (c) is one type that may occur when a test animal is exposed to a(n)
_________ are best defined as substances that cause cancer
_________ are best defined as substances that cause birth defects
Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because
There is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease
Bisphenol A is ________
An estrogen mimic that is used in the manufacture of plastics
Transport or airborne toxicants a specific problem in agricultural environments, is called pesticide _________
Aquatic animals such as fish and frogs are especially good indicators of water pollution because
Most chemicals are water soluble so they enter these organisms through drinking or skin absorption
Suppose that the concentration of DDT in a lake is 0.0000003 ppm (parts per million) and the concentration of DDT in the tissues of an osprey (a fish-eating bird) is 35 ppm. This is an example of
Acute exposure to an environmental toxin
Are high exposures over short times and associated with a specific cause
Chronic exposure to an environmental toxin is best describes as
Low levels of exposure over a long period of time
An organism, such as a mosquito, that transmits a disease-causing organism to a host I called a
Synergistic effects of toxicants that are mixed together
Are multiplicative (the toxicants may multiply each other’s effects) or greater than additive
According to the Precautionary Principle
Restrict any chemical that is suspected of toxicity until it is proven
The goal of Stockholm Convention is to ________
→ End the use and release of 12 POPs (persistent organic pollutants) shown to be the most dangerous
Toxicants that interact with an organism’s natural hormone receptors are ______
Toxicants that cause harm by affecting the immune system include ________
Chemicals used in cosmetics in the U.S. are
Not reviewed before being sold
Radon, cigarettes smoke, asbestos and lead all have in common that they are all ________
Which is considered a cultural hazard?
Doing wheelies on a motorcycle
Which is considered a physical hazard?
Being part of a mudslide
Prior to 2005, no rules regulating mercury emission from coal-fired power plants existed in the U.S. This represents the ________
Mercury is not readily excreted; it is stored in mammalian body tissues. This is best described as _________
Based upon the specific health effects described above, mercury would be best classified as a(n)
Mercury us to methylmercury as DDT is to _______