Environmental Science Ecology Test

population
a group of organisms a of single species that inhabit the same geographic location at the same time

species
a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

community
a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time

biotic factor
any living factor in an organism environment

abiotic factor
the nonliving factor in an organism’s environment

habitat
the location where an organism lives

niche
the role or position that an organism lives

carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals an environment can support for the long term

immigration
a number of individuals moving into an area

emigration
a number of individuals moving away from an area

parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another

A community contains _____
several populations of multiple species in one place at one time

Which of the following is a population density?
2.3 trees/ hectare

The presence of eagles that prey upon rabbits is a ______.
biotic limiting factor

A sewage spill that kills a population of fish is called an _____.
abiotic limiting factor

Larger animals have ______ population densities compared to smaller animals.
smaller

A flock of geese could best be described as a _______.
population

The savannah would be the _______ African lions.
habitat

A caterpillar that eats the leaves of just one species of milkweed would be called a ________.
specialist

Forty gray squirrels leaving a forest is an example of _______.
emigration

The study of interactions between different species is called _______.
community ecology

An alligator attacking a deer is an example of ______.
predation

_______ is when two organisms of different species have a close relationship.
symbiosis

Barnacles growing on a humpback whale are an example of ________, because the barnacles gain a benefit from the whale, but the whale neither gains a benefit nor is harmed.
communalism

The crocodile bird cleaning the teeth of a crocodile is an example of ________ because the relationship is benefit to both animals.
mutualism

What is the difference between a biome and an ecosystem?
•A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share a similar climate and types of communities.
Ex: Deserts

•An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Ex: Sahara, Gobi, Badlands

What are the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and the atmosphere?
•Hydrosphere- all water related systems (oceans, rivers, lakes, streams)
•Lithosphere- all terrestrial related systems (caves, grasslands, plains, forests)
•Atmosphere- all air related systems

List a real world example of the following:
-Predation
-Parasitism
-Mutualism
•Predation- cat eating a mouse
•Parasitism- leeches
•Mutualism- remora cleaning sharks

Give two example of density-dependent factor.
predation, disease, parasites, competition, food availability, mates

What is the population density of 20 deer inhabiting 2 sq km of land?
20 deer
________ = 10 deer/ sq km

2 sq km

A researcher catches 100 butterflies and marks their wings. At a later date the researcher comes back and catches 50 butterflies. 25 butterflies in the second group have their wings marked. What is the size of the butterfly population in the area?
100 25
____ = ___
x 50

25x= 5,000

x= 200 Butterflies

biosphere
the portion of the Earth that supports life

biological community
group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographical area at the same time

limiting factors
biotic or abiotic factors that keep a population from continuing to increase indefinitely

population dispersion or distribution
the pattern of spacing of a population within an area: uniform, clumped, random

density-independent factors
drought, extreme heat or cold, flooding, human action, forest fires, pollution

density-dependent factors
predation, disease, parasites, competition

exponential growth rate (or model)
start out slowly but increases rapidly; J shaped

logistic growth rate
slows of stops at the population’s carrying capacity; S shaped

predation
the act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for their food

symbiosis
the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together

mutualism
the close relationship that exists when two or more species live closely together and benefit from each other

commensalism
a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed

biodiversity
the variety of life in the world or the particular habitat/ecosystem

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