Environmental Science Ecology Test

population
a group of organisms a of single species that inhabit the same geographic location at the same time
species
a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
community
a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time
biotic factor
any living factor in an organism environment
abiotic factor
the nonliving factor in an organism’s environment
habitat
the location where an organism lives
niche
the role or position that an organism lives
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals an environment can support for the long term
immigration
a number of individuals moving into an area
emigration
a number of individuals moving away from an area
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another
A community contains _____
several populations of multiple species in one place at one time
Which of the following is a population density?
2.3 trees/ hectare
The presence of eagles that prey upon rabbits is a ______.
biotic limiting factor
A sewage spill that kills a population of fish is called an _____.
abiotic limiting factor
Larger animals have ______ population densities compared to smaller animals.
smaller
A flock of geese could best be described as a _______.
population
The savannah would be the _______ African lions.
habitat
A caterpillar that eats the leaves of just one species of milkweed would be called a ________.
specialist
Forty gray squirrels leaving a forest is an example of _______.
emigration
The study of interactions between different species is called _______.
community ecology
An alligator attacking a deer is an example of ______.
predation
_______ is when two organisms of different species have a close relationship.
symbiosis
Barnacles growing on a humpback whale are an example of ________, because the barnacles gain a benefit from the whale, but the whale neither gains a benefit nor is harmed.
communalism
The crocodile bird cleaning the teeth of a crocodile is an example of ________ because the relationship is benefit to both animals.
mutualism
What is the difference between a biome and an ecosystem?
•A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share a similar climate and types of communities.
Ex: Deserts

•An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Ex: Sahara, Gobi, Badlands

What are the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and the atmosphere?
•Hydrosphere- all water related systems (oceans, rivers, lakes, streams)
•Lithosphere- all terrestrial related systems (caves, grasslands, plains, forests)
•Atmosphere- all air related systems
List a real world example of the following:
-Predation
-Parasitism
-Mutualism
•Predation- cat eating a mouse
•Parasitism- leeches
•Mutualism- remora cleaning sharks
Give two example of density-dependent factor.
predation, disease, parasites, competition, food availability, mates
What is the population density of 20 deer inhabiting 2 sq km of land?
20 deer
________ = 10 deer/ sq km

2 sq km

A researcher catches 100 butterflies and marks their wings. At a later date the researcher comes back and catches 50 butterflies. 25 butterflies in the second group have their wings marked. What is the size of the butterfly population in the area?
100 25
____ = ___
x 50

25x= 5,000

x= 200 Butterflies

biosphere
the portion of the Earth that supports life
biological community
group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographical area at the same time
limiting factors
biotic or abiotic factors that keep a population from continuing to increase indefinitely
population dispersion or distribution
the pattern of spacing of a population within an area: uniform, clumped, random
density-independent factors
drought, extreme heat or cold, flooding, human action, forest fires, pollution
density-dependent factors
predation, disease, parasites, competition
exponential growth rate (or model)
start out slowly but increases rapidly; J shaped
logistic growth rate
slows of stops at the population’s carrying capacity; S shaped
predation
the act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for their food
symbiosis
the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together
mutualism
the close relationship that exists when two or more species live closely together and benefit from each other
commensalism
a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed
biodiversity
the variety of life in the world or the particular habitat/ecosystem