Environmental first semester exam

major contributors to the field of environmental science
biology, earth, chemistry, physics, and social science

most of today’s environmental problems began during what period in human history?
Industrial Revolution

environmental science is a study of which types of interactions between humans and the environment
how humans:
use natural resource, relate to the nonliving environment, human actions alter the environment

what is studied in environmental science?
impact of humans on the environment

population growth in the 20th century accelerated what environmental stresses
resource depletion, pollution, and habitat destruction

why is the world’s loss of biodiversity a source of concern?
humans depend on other organisms and their nonliving environment

using economic consideration of resource use, the law of supply and demand describes..?
the relationship between the availability and the worth of resources

using both the merits and expenses involved in implementing a particular environmental solution is an example of?
a cost-benefit analysis

compared with their counterparts in developed countries, individuals in developing nations typically have
shorter life span

achieving a sustainable world is a goal that will depend on…?
responsible consumption by developed countries and cooperation between governments, industry, and citizens

example of a reusable resource
building wooden furniture

developed countries
france, canada, new zealand

what is not a result of the industrial revolution
overhunting of large animals

Hardin’s “tragedy of commons” essay addresses the conflicts associated with what environmental challenge?
protecting shared resources

according to the law of supply and demand, reduced oil production lead to
higher prices for oil

what is not an environmental function of wetlands?
increasing runoff

what is not an important advantage for aquatic organisms living near the surface of a lake or pond?
presence of decomposing organisms

what is not a characteristic of salt marshes and mangrove swamps
both are dominated by marsh grasses

photosynthetic organisms are found mainly in shallow water due to availability of..?
sunlight

in what zone is aquatic life abundant and diverse
littoral

in what zone is the water cool and dark
Benthic

what is not a threat to coral reefs?
phytoplankton

estuaries are extremely productive ecosystems because they continually receive nutrients from ___ and ___
rivers and oceans

what causes most coastal pollution in the U.S.
industrial waste and sewage

as they flow down a mountain to flatter ground, rivers generally become..?
wider, warmer, and slower

water ____ sunlight; therefore photosynthesis in lakes and oceans does not occur below 100 meters
absorbs

what aquatic ecosystem is adversely affected by runoff?
rivers, oceans, and estuaries

most pollutants that enter estuaries break down over time, yet they are still considered a problem because…?
it is the volume of the pollutants, more than the time factor, that harms estuaries

what adaptation prevents phytoplankton from sinking into deep water
flagella

what are two threats to ocean ecosystems
nutrient runoff and industrial waste discharge, entanglement of marine mammals in trawl nets and overfishing, and sewage and algal blooms

many angiosperms depend on animals for…?
pollinating their flowers, and distributing their seeds

what invertebrates are generally small, allowing them to live on little food and to hide from enemies?
insects

name a vertebrate
frogs

what is considered a lower plant
ferns and mosses

which of the following does not belong with the rest

moss
grass
algae
wild flower

algae

describes soil and temperature in an ecosystem
abiotic factors

what is part of an organisms habitat
shelter, food, and water

what does not describe part of the process of evolution by natural selection
communities include population of several species

some snakes produce a powerful venom that paralyzes their prey. this poison is an example of…
an adaptation

what best describes a population
members of the same species living in the same place at the same time

organisms can adapt to…
their physical surroundings

the process of two species changing genetically in response to long-term interactions with each other is
coevolution

for evolution to occur in a population, individuals with a trait that is “naturally selected for” must
reproduce

an organism is resistant to a chemical if it
has a gene that protects it from the chemical

some organisms are more likely to survive because they
have certain physical traits, lack certain physical traits, and have certain behaviors

most scientist classify organisms into
6 kingdoms

most land animals depend on angiosperms for
food

what converts nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use?
bacteria

which protist is a type of algae that uses energy from the sun to make food
phytoplankton

which animal is successful because it moves quickly, reproduces rapidly, and has a waterproof external skeleton
bird

what organism belong to the same population
a human mother and her child

which components of an ecosystem is not abiotic factors
tree branches

what phrase does not describe the part of the process of evolution by natural selection
communities include populations of several species

what type of vegetation would you expect to find on an abandoned farm that has remained undisturbed for 150 years?
tall, mature oak trees

what type of vegetation would you expect to find on newly volcanic islands
lichens

what type of succession occurs after a natural process such as volcanic eruption or flood
primary succession

what is the ultimate source of energy for almost all organisms except those living deep in the ocean near a thermal vent
the sun

what consumer might depend on a rabbit for its energy
horse

a consumer that eats only producers is called an
carnivore

what term is used to describe a linear sequence in which energy is transmitted from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism
energy pyramid

what is not true about a consumer
they make their own food

lowest trophic level to highest
grass, mouse, snake, eagle

communities of bacteria have been found living thousands of feet underwater. what is a proper conclusion to say about this bacteria
they use an energy source other than sunlight

what would be a pioneer organism on an area of bare rock
lichens

the amount of light available to each layer of a tropical rain forest from least to most is
emergent layer, upper canopy, lower canopy, understory

describe the climate of the chapparal
mediterannian climate:hot dry summers, mild wet winters

what organisms has the same ecological role as lions in the savanna
coyotes in the chaparral

approximately what percentage of the earth’s species do tropical rain forests contain
20%

animal species of tropical rainforest
have adaptations to cope with extreme variations in climate

migration of anim als in the savanna is mostly a response to
temperature

spadefoot toads survive the dry conditions the desert has by
burying themselves in the ground

the tundra is most suitable to a vertebrate that
has green outer skin for camouflage

a biome that has a large amount of rainfall, high temperatures, and poor soil is a…
tropical rainforest

the most common types of plants in the taiga biomes are…
coniferous trees

describe a biome
a region characterized by specific climate and organism communities

what type of forest has the greatest biodiversity
tropical rainforest

what is the diversity of the species in an are dependent on?
rainfall

what are the main factors that determine weather
altitude,latitude,precipitation, and temperature

what biome contains large treest
temperate rain forest

what essential characteristic does a good experiment have
a single variable is tested and a control is used

why are mathematical models important?
they are especially useful with many variables

the average mass of a wolf in a pack of wolves is an example of
mean

a model of a dinosaur is an example of a ____ model
physical

the chance that an earthquake will occur in your town during the next year is an example of
risk

before you can make a decision using a decision-making model, what step must you take?
explore the consequence of each option, consider which values apply to the issue, and gather information

if you consider what will protect our natural resources when making an environmental decision, you are examining a
environmental

a good hypothesis is more than a guess because it
makes logical sense

when making an environmental decision, listing positive and negative long term short term consequences can help to
weigh your values

principles or standards we consider important are known as
values

the decision-making model
provides a systematic process, is a conceptual model, and helps you make a decision

name the decision making model in order
gather information, consider values,explore consequences, make a decision

which step in the environmental decision making model should include reading newspapers and listening to well- informed people on all sides of an issue
gathering information

scientists form ______ hypothesis to answer question
testable

risk is the ____ of a negative outcome
probability

scientists ______ experiments to make sure the results are meaningful
repeat

the number of wild horses per square kilometer in a prairie is the horse’s population’s
density

if over a long period of time each pair of adults in a population had only two offspring and the offspring lived to reproduce, the population would
stay the same

competition for food cannot occur…
between animals from two different ecosystems

a bird that feeds at night and a bird that feeds during the day from the same flower is an example of…
indirect competition

in what type of interaction between species does one species benefit by harming another species but not killing it
parasitism

a relationship that has coevolved
flowering plants and their pollinators

what organism has the highest reproductive potentioal
bacteria

random dispersion
solitary snakes in a desert

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