Environmental first semester exam

major contributors to the field of environmental science
biology, earth, chemistry, physics, and social science
most of today’s environmental problems began during what period in human history?
Industrial Revolution
environmental science is a study of which types of interactions between humans and the environment
how humans:
use natural resource, relate to the nonliving environment, human actions alter the environment
what is studied in environmental science?
impact of humans on the environment
population growth in the 20th century accelerated what environmental stresses
resource depletion, pollution, and habitat destruction
why is the world’s loss of biodiversity a source of concern?
humans depend on other organisms and their nonliving environment
using economic consideration of resource use, the law of supply and demand describes..?
the relationship between the availability and the worth of resources
using both the merits and expenses involved in implementing a particular environmental solution is an example of?
a cost-benefit analysis
compared with their counterparts in developed countries, individuals in developing nations typically have
shorter life span
achieving a sustainable world is a goal that will depend on…?
responsible consumption by developed countries and cooperation between governments, industry, and citizens
example of a reusable resource
building wooden furniture
developed countries
france, canada, new zealand
what is not a result of the industrial revolution
overhunting of large animals
Hardin’s “tragedy of commons” essay addresses the conflicts associated with what environmental challenge?
protecting shared resources
according to the law of supply and demand, reduced oil production lead to
higher prices for oil
what is not an environmental function of wetlands?
increasing runoff
what is not an important advantage for aquatic organisms living near the surface of a lake or pond?
presence of decomposing organisms
what is not a characteristic of salt marshes and mangrove swamps
both are dominated by marsh grasses
photosynthetic organisms are found mainly in shallow water due to availability of..?
sunlight
in what zone is aquatic life abundant and diverse
littoral
in what zone is the water cool and dark
Benthic
what is not a threat to coral reefs?
phytoplankton
estuaries are extremely productive ecosystems because they continually receive nutrients from ___ and ___
rivers and oceans
what causes most coastal pollution in the U.S.
industrial waste and sewage
as they flow down a mountain to flatter ground, rivers generally become..?
wider, warmer, and slower
water ____ sunlight; therefore photosynthesis in lakes and oceans does not occur below 100 meters
absorbs
what aquatic ecosystem is adversely affected by runoff?
rivers, oceans, and estuaries
most pollutants that enter estuaries break down over time, yet they are still considered a problem because…?
it is the volume of the pollutants, more than the time factor, that harms estuaries
what adaptation prevents phytoplankton from sinking into deep water
flagella
what are two threats to ocean ecosystems
nutrient runoff and industrial waste discharge, entanglement of marine mammals in trawl nets and overfishing, and sewage and algal blooms
many angiosperms depend on animals for…?
pollinating their flowers, and distributing their seeds
what invertebrates are generally small, allowing them to live on little food and to hide from enemies?
insects
name a vertebrate
frogs
what is considered a lower plant
ferns and mosses
which of the following does not belong with the rest

moss
grass
algae
wild flower

algae
describes soil and temperature in an ecosystem
abiotic factors
what is part of an organisms habitat
shelter, food, and water
what does not describe part of the process of evolution by natural selection
communities include population of several species
some snakes produce a powerful venom that paralyzes their prey. this poison is an example of…
an adaptation
what best describes a population
members of the same species living in the same place at the same time
organisms can adapt to…
their physical surroundings
the process of two species changing genetically in response to long-term interactions with each other is
coevolution
for evolution to occur in a population, individuals with a trait that is “naturally selected for” must
reproduce
an organism is resistant to a chemical if it
has a gene that protects it from the chemical
some organisms are more likely to survive because they
have certain physical traits, lack certain physical traits, and have certain behaviors
most scientist classify organisms into
6 kingdoms
most land animals depend on angiosperms for
food
what converts nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use?
bacteria
which protist is a type of algae that uses energy from the sun to make food
phytoplankton
which animal is successful because it moves quickly, reproduces rapidly, and has a waterproof external skeleton
bird
what organism belong to the same population
a human mother and her child
which components of an ecosystem is not abiotic factors
tree branches
what phrase does not describe the part of the process of evolution by natural selection
communities include populations of several species
what type of vegetation would you expect to find on an abandoned farm that has remained undisturbed for 150 years?
tall, mature oak trees
what type of vegetation would you expect to find on newly volcanic islands
lichens
what type of succession occurs after a natural process such as volcanic eruption or flood
primary succession
what is the ultimate source of energy for almost all organisms except those living deep in the ocean near a thermal vent
the sun
what consumer might depend on a rabbit for its energy
horse
a consumer that eats only producers is called an
carnivore
what term is used to describe a linear sequence in which energy is transmitted from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism
energy pyramid
what is not true about a consumer
they make their own food
lowest trophic level to highest
grass, mouse, snake, eagle
communities of bacteria have been found living thousands of feet underwater. what is a proper conclusion to say about this bacteria
they use an energy source other than sunlight
what would be a pioneer organism on an area of bare rock
lichens
the amount of light available to each layer of a tropical rain forest from least to most is
emergent layer, upper canopy, lower canopy, understory
describe the climate of the chapparal
mediterannian climate:hot dry summers, mild wet winters
what organisms has the same ecological role as lions in the savanna
coyotes in the chaparral
approximately what percentage of the earth’s species do tropical rain forests contain
20%
animal species of tropical rainforest
have adaptations to cope with extreme variations in climate
migration of anim als in the savanna is mostly a response to
temperature
spadefoot toads survive the dry conditions the desert has by
burying themselves in the ground
the tundra is most suitable to a vertebrate that
has green outer skin for camouflage
a biome that has a large amount of rainfall, high temperatures, and poor soil is a…
tropical rainforest
the most common types of plants in the taiga biomes are…
coniferous trees
describe a biome
a region characterized by specific climate and organism communities
what type of forest has the greatest biodiversity
tropical rainforest
what is the diversity of the species in an are dependent on?
rainfall
what are the main factors that determine weather
altitude,latitude,precipitation, and temperature
what biome contains large treest
temperate rain forest
what essential characteristic does a good experiment have
a single variable is tested and a control is used
why are mathematical models important?
they are especially useful with many variables
the average mass of a wolf in a pack of wolves is an example of
mean
a model of a dinosaur is an example of a ____ model
physical
the chance that an earthquake will occur in your town during the next year is an example of
risk
before you can make a decision using a decision-making model, what step must you take?
explore the consequence of each option, consider which values apply to the issue, and gather information
if you consider what will protect our natural resources when making an environmental decision, you are examining a
environmental
a good hypothesis is more than a guess because it
makes logical sense
when making an environmental decision, listing positive and negative long term short term consequences can help to
weigh your values
principles or standards we consider important are known as
values
the decision-making model
provides a systematic process, is a conceptual model, and helps you make a decision
name the decision making model in order
gather information, consider values,explore consequences, make a decision
which step in the environmental decision making model should include reading newspapers and listening to well- informed people on all sides of an issue
gathering information
scientists form ______ hypothesis to answer question
testable
risk is the ____ of a negative outcome
probability
scientists ______ experiments to make sure the results are meaningful
repeat
the number of wild horses per square kilometer in a prairie is the horse’s population’s
density
if over a long period of time each pair of adults in a population had only two offspring and the offspring lived to reproduce, the population would
stay the same
competition for food cannot occur…
between animals from two different ecosystems
a bird that feeds at night and a bird that feeds during the day from the same flower is an example of…
indirect competition
in what type of interaction between species does one species benefit by harming another species but not killing it
parasitism
a relationship that has coevolved
flowering plants and their pollinators
what organism has the highest reproductive potentioal
bacteria
random dispersion
solitary snakes in a desert