English Semester 1 Final Study Guide(Grammar, Essay Conventions) – Flashcards

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simple sentence
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1 independent clause; ex: The boy cried.
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compound sentence
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2 independent clauses joined by comma and conjunction or a semicolon; ex: Marion read the paper, but she didn't agree with the thesis.
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complex sentence
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1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clause(s); ex: When he was younger, Mike had many dogs.
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compound-complex sentence
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2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clause(s); ex: When the bell rang, the students went to their seats, and the teacher started the lesson.
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prepositional phrase
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includes a preposition, a noun or a pronoun, and any modifiers of that noun or pronoun; ex: by the ocean
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participial phrase
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consists of a participle and any complements of modifiers it may have; the entire participial phrase acts as an adjective; ex: Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches.(climbing the tree is a participial phrase because it modifies the monkey disappearing into the branches)
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gerund phrase
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a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun; ex: Reading will increase your vocabulary.
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infinitive phrase
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consists of an infinitive together with its modifies and complements; the entire infinitive phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; usually attached with "to"; ex: To hit a curve ball solidly is very difficult.
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appositive phrase
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made up of an appositive and its modifiers; ex: We saw three birds, two robins and a cardinal.
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independent clause
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"main" clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence; ex: He ran.
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subordinate clause
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"dependent" clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone; needs a verb; ex: He finally finished his novel, after months of research.("after months of research" is dependent)
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analytical essay(response to literature)
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writing piece in which the writer reads a piece of literature and writes about the personal connections and personal feelings the piece inspires in the reader; STEPS: -introduction paragraph(includes summary of writing piece and finishes with thesis statement) -body paragraphs(each paragraph describes each part of the thesis) -conclusion paragraph(restate thesis and summarize main idea)
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argumentative essay
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genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner; STEPS: -introduction paragraph(introduce topic by giving background information that briefly explains the topic so that the reader will understand the topic to be argued, add the thesis statement that clearly and strongly states your opinion concerning the topic) -body paragraphs(each body paragraph gives one reason that supports the opinion stated in the thesis, should be ordered so that the strongest is last) -rebuttal paragraph(state why the other side could be right, but then state an even stronger claim on why your side is better) -conclusion paragraph(summarize main points and connect to world)
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narrative essay
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a story written about a personal experience; STEPS: -introduction paragraph -beginning of story paragraph -middle of story paragraph -end of story paragraph -conclusion paragraph
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question
simple sentence
answer
1 independent clause; ex: The boy cried.
question
compound sentence
answer
2 independent clauses joined by comma and conjunction or a semicolon; ex: Marion read the paper, but she didn't agree with the thesis.
question
complex sentence
answer
1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clause(s); ex: When he was younger, Mike had many dogs.
question
compound-complex sentence
answer
2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clause(s); ex: When the bell rang, the students went to their seats, and the teacher started the lesson.
question
prepositional phrase
answer
includes a preposition, a noun or a pronoun, and any modifiers of that noun or pronoun; ex: by the ocean
question
participial phrase
answer
consists of a participle and any complements of modifiers it may have; the entire participial phrase acts as an adjective; ex: Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches.(climbing the tree is a participial phrase because it modifies the monkey disappearing into the branches)
question
gerund phrase
answer
a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun; ex: Reading will increase your vocabulary.
question
infinitive phrase
answer
consists of an infinitive together with its modifies and complements; the entire infinitive phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; usually attached with "to"; ex: To hit a curve ball solidly is very difficult.
question
appositive phrase
answer
made up of an appositive and its modifiers; ex: We saw three birds, two robins and a cardinal.
question
independent clause
answer
"main" clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence; ex: He ran.
question
subordinate clause
answer
"dependent" clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone; needs a verb; ex: He finally finished his novel, after months of research.("after months of research" is dependent)
question
analytical essay(response to literature)
answer
writing piece in which the writer reads a piece of literature and writes about the personal connections and personal feelings the piece inspires in the reader; STEPS: -introduction paragraph(includes summary of writing piece and finishes with thesis statement) -body paragraphs(each paragraph describes each part of the thesis) -conclusion paragraph(restate thesis and summarize main idea)
question
argumentative essay
answer
genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner; STEPS: -introduction paragraph(introduce topic by giving background information that briefly explains the topic so that the reader will understand the topic to be argued, add the thesis statement that clearly and strongly states your opinion concerning the topic) -body paragraphs(each body paragraph gives one reason that supports the opinion stated in the thesis, should be ordered so that the strongest is last) -rebuttal paragraph(state why the other side could be right, but then state an even stronger claim on why your side is better) -conclusion paragraph(summarize main points and connect to world)
question
narrative essay
answer
a story written about a personal experience; STEPS: -introduction paragraph -beginning of story paragraph -middle of story paragraph -end of story paragraph -conclusion paragraph