English – Notecards for Stephen Crane Paper

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Source: 2 On September 12, 1890, Stephen Crane registered at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, and was shortly thereafter initiated into Delta Upsilon fraternity (p. 19)
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Source: 2 Stephen Crane planned to major in mining-engineering in college, and he took courses in algebra, chemistry, French, Bible and theme-writing. (p. 20)
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Source: 2 At the end of the first semester in college, Crane had a zero in theme writing. He seldom went to class, smoked alot (few boys did at that time) and was advised by the school to leave, which he did in January, 1891. (p. 20)
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Source: 2 \”Crane treated schools very much as he did, all his life, cigarettes: he would llight one after another, hold them, watch them burn, but would scarcely ever puff on them. Perhaps just lighting them was rebellion enough against his father – as not studying was rebellion against his mother, whom he loved.\” (p. 20)
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Source: 2 Crane had a passionate tenderness for dogs, horses, and children, which made him beloved by most people that knew him. (p. 23)
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Source: 2 \”Very early he seemed to many who met him a genius. To others he seemed disagreeably indifferent, arrogant, shocking.\” (p. 23)
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Source: 2 Crane was described as boyish, with sallow complexion, pointy nose, and untidy brown hair just like his clothes and posture. (p. 23)
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Source: 2 \”Not that I disliked books but cut-and-dried curriculum of the college did not appeal to me. Humanity was a more interesting study… So, you see, I had first of all to recover from college; I had to build up…\” Stephen Crane (p. 24)
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Source: 2 \”But it is true that it is not easy to think of another important prose-writer or poet so ignorant of traditional literature in English as Stephen Crane was and remained.\” (p. 24)
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Source: 2 In 1896, Edward Murphy, the young master of the famous tugboat, Commodore, agreed that Stephen could be a seaman on his boat. (p. 155)
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Source: 2 On New Year’s Eve in 1896, the Commodore boat was loaded with rifles and ammunition, while a crowd of Cubans watched from the pier and waved farewell to Cubans boarding the Commodore to travel to Cuba to fight. (p. 155-56)
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Source: 2 Two men yelled in Spanish from the dock that the Commodore would sink. (p. 156)
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Source: 2 At sea, the Commodore developed a leak, and the pumps would not work. (p. 157)
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Source: 2 Crane and another young oiler, Billy Higgins, were the only two Americans on the Commodore who sweated with the Cubans in passing up the buckets of water along a chain of men. (p. 157)
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Source: 2 One Cuban panicked and tried to escape on a lifeboat, but Crane punched him in the shoulder. (p. 158)
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Source: 2 A group of 12 Cubans lowered a life boat and travelled back to New Symrna, Florida, but they did not send back help. (p. 158)
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Source: 2 Shortly after the Commodore’s captain entered the dinghy, the Commodore began to sink. (p. 159)
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Source: 6 Captain Murphy, Stephen Crane, Higgins (the oiler), and Charles Montgomery (the cook) escaped the sinking Commodore in a 10-foot dinghy. (p. 95)
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Source: 2 The cook said, \”Crane was a good swimmer, and he really saved one of the sailors, as the man could not swim a stroke, and Crane had to keep him up by the aid of an oar.\” (p. 159)
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Source: 2 When the dinghy sunk, the men swam to shore and were greeted by a man on the beach, who first went to the cook and then to the captain. (p. 164)
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Source: 2 They then saw Higgins the oiler face down in the shallow water, and his head was crushed by a timber in the surf; Higgins died shortly afterwards when the others from the dinghy were being cared for. (p. 164)
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Source: 2 \”He was not exactly saved, though. Seventy or eighty hours more or less foodless and sleepless, unwell, the engine-room, the deck, a death… the day and night of the boat… the surf… these had their effect, and, when taken with his unabated habit of sparing himself nothing, and with the tuberculosis probably now developing, suggest that from now on Crane was a young man who lived actively with death, a man more than usually a-man-dying.\” (p. 165 – 166)
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Source: 2 Three days after arriving on the beach, Crane wired his dispatch about the voyage and the loss of the Commodore, and the story filled nearly the entire front page of the New York Press on January 7, 1897. (p. 166)
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Source: 2 \”And the story of the open boat must have been working already in his mind, for the dispatch says only, near the end, \”The history of life in an open boat for thirty hours is not to be told here.\” (p. 166)
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Source 2: By mid-February 1897, \”The Open Boat\” was done. (p. 166)
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Source: 6 On November 1, 1871, Mrs. Mary Crane gave birth to Stephen Crane, her 14th child, in Newark, New Jersey after losing her last five children in infancy. (p. 9)
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Source: 6 The Cranes were part of the first colonists that landed in Massachusetts Bay in 1620 and founded New Haven in Connecticut, as well as Montclair (once called Cranetown) and Elizabethtown in New Jersey. (p. 9)
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Source: 6 Cranes served in all of the US wars, and Stephen was raised to be very proud of his military ancestors. (p. 10)
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Source: 6 Crane’s \”illustrious family made a deep impression on him and helped shape his imagination.\” (p. 10)
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Source: 6 Although Crane rebelled against everything his father, Reverend Crane, stood for, Crane always had admiration of his father: \”Once, Will gave me a toy gun and I tried to shoot a cow with it. It upset Father terribly. He loved all kinds of animals, and never drove a horse faster than two yards an hour even if some Christian was dying somewhere\” (p. 15)
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Source: 6 After Stephen’s father died, Mrs. Crane moved to Asbury Park, New Jersey, which was a mile north of Ocean Grove, where a great religious encampment was held each summer. (p. 15)
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Source: 6 Because his middle aged parents were too busy in religious causes, they did not have time to nurse their unexpected child, Stephen, so Stephen’s sister, Agnes, then fifteen, cared for him. (p. 12)
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Source: 6 Agnes was the most important influence in Stephen’s early years, and she first wanted to be \”a Christian lady, then a writer.\” (p. 12)
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Source: 6 Agnes directed Stephen in reading and encouraged him to write stories and poems. (p. 12)
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Source: 6 After Agnes died at age 28 of spinal meningitis, Stephen \”came under the more worldly influence of his brothers\” who had rejected their parents’ views on strict religion. (p. 17)
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Source: 6 In November, 1896, Crane was offered a job as a war correspondent for Cuba’s revolt against Spain. (p. 91)
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Source: 6 \”The adventure in the dinghy was a dramatic real-life enactment of a theme that runs through his work from the earliest Asbury Park report- the plight of a man in an alien and indifferent universe.\” (p. 97)
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Source 6: \”In the story, Nature is sometimes cruel and deadly, sometimes beautiful and picturesque – and sometimes merely indifferent to the fate of the four men in the boat.\” (p. 97)
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Source 1: \”Crane’s education on the streets of New York gave him a fresh perspective on the beaches of New Jersey. After his discouraging months of freelancing, he returned in the summer of 1892 to his old job with his brother Townley’s Asbury Park news bureau. Crane joined other \”shore reporters\” in chronicling the visits of important families and flamboyant shysters to the various resorts along the boardwalk.\” (p. 76)
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Source 1: \”Crane’s journalism allowed him to educate himself in the phenomenology of disaster – fires, murders, mining accidents, shipwrecks. When he found himself in the midst of such events, he was prepared to make the most of them.\” (P. 182)
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Source 1: \”For Crane, the Commodore disaster was merely the culminating episode in a lifelong involvement with shipwrecks, actual and metaphorical. In some of his earliest journalism Crane had written about shipwrecks on the Jersey shore, developing techniques of style and emphasis that he would use to advantage in drafting \”Open Boat.\” (P. 183)
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Source 1: \”Stories of disaster and survival at sea were a popular genre in the nineteenth century, particularly up to the Civil War, before sails gave way to steam.\” (P. 183)
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Source 1: \”Long before the Commodore disaster, Crane had explored the genre, in some of his Jersey shore journalism, as though in preparation for the work he would put into \”The Open Boat.\” (P. 193)
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Source 3: \”His mother came from a family of Methodist ministers.\” (p. 3)
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Source 3: \”His mother gave temperance lectures: after cracking the white of an egg into a glass, she showed the audience how a squirt of alcohol curdled it.\” (p. 3)
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Source 3: \”Crane’s father, too, was a minister, as well as the presiding elder of Newark’s Methodist churches, and he wrote treatises denouncing intoxication, theatre, frivolous novels, and dance.\” (p. 3)
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Source 3: The family moved often, and his father died, of what seems to have been a heart attack, in 1880.\” (p. 3)
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Source 3: Crane \”was precocious in his pursuit of pleasure. By the time he was four, he was already reading novels.\” (P. 3)
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Source 3: \”When he was six, a friend watched in admiration as he smoked a cigarette on the way to a temperance lecture and drank a beer at a fair the next day.\” (p. 3)
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Source 3: \”In the summers, he worked for an older brother, a bandanna-wearing eccentric who ran a news bureau in Asbury Park, which supplied the New York Tribune with reports of socialites’ visits to the town.\”
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Source 3: Crane failed five out of his seven classes at Lafayette College, and got a zero in writing. (p. 4)
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Source 3: \”in \”the Open Boat,\” Crane’s short story based on the experience, the hero glimpses in nature [a] cosmic indifference.\” (P. 9)
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Source: 3 \”To describe his hero’s confusion and anger, Crane came up with a self-destructing metaphor: \”He at first wishes to throw bricks at the temple, and he hates deeply the fact that there are no bricks and no temples.\” (p. 9)
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Source: 4 \”After flunking out of both Lafayette College and Syracuse University, he became a journalist in New York, specializing in the grim lives of the down-and-out.\” (P. 185)
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Source: 4 \”Crane has been called the first writer of American realism.\” (P. 186)
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Source: 4 \”In his short life, Crane greatly helped American literature to come of age.\” (P. 186)
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Source: 4 \”Hounded by creditors, afflicted by tuberculosis, he died in Germany at twenty-eight.\” (P. 186)
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Source: 5 \”Influenced by William Dean Howell’s theory of realism, Crane utilized his keen observations, as well as personal experiences, to achieve a narrative vividness and sense of immediacy matched by few American writers before him.\”
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Source: 5 \”The Open Boat\” is \”among the most skillfully crafted stories in American literature.\” (p. 1)
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Source: 5 \”Although Crane achieved the pinnacle of his success with The Red Badge of Courage, many critics believe that he demonstrated his greatest strength as a short story writer.\” (P. 3)
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Source: 5 \”Crane’s characteristic use of vivid imagery is demonstrated throughout this story to underscore both the beauty and terror of natural forces.\” (P. 3)
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Source: 5 \”According to critics, Crane is at his best in \”The Open Boat,\” maintaining an even tone and fluent style while conveying a metaphysical identification between God and nature.\” (p. 3)
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Source: 5 \”In these short stories, as in most of his work, Crane is a consummate ironist, employing a technique that most critics find consistently suggests the disparity between an individual’s perception of reality and reality as it actually exists.\” (p. 3)
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Source: 5 \”Commentators generally agree that for the most part Crane disregarded plot and character delineation in his work and that he was unable to sustain longer works of fiction.\” (P. 3)
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Source: 5 \”Critics contend that despite his minor flaws, Crane’s artistry lies in his ability to convey a personal vision based on his own sense of integrity. In doing so, he pioneered a modern form of fiction….\” (P. 3)
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