English 4 Unit Test: Queen Elizabeth, Conversational and Engaging Tone

In this excerpt, Queen Elizabeth says “for the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life” in order to

convince her audience that she is unbiased, intelligent, and rarely makes mistakes.
inform her audience that she will work hard to win back the broken trust of her followers.
persuade her audience that she will never make personal decisions that will harm England.
remind her audience that she is the ruler and in charge of enacting laws that protect England.

c
n this excerpt, Queen Elizabeth relies heavily on a rhetorical appeal to ethos to establish that she has the qualities of a strong
leader

Queen Elizabeth most likely used different rhetorical appeals in her Address to the Troops at Tilbury and her Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry due to differences in

wealth and upbringing.
age and education.
audience and purpose.
location and gender.

c

What is Queen Elizabeth’s purpose in this excerpt?

to persuade Parliament that the method of choosing successors to the throne based simply on birthright needs to be revised
to persuade Parliament that her child should not be considered a possible choice for successor to the English throne
to persuade Parliament that simply because she has a child does not guarantee that the child will be a competent ruler
to persuade Parliament how catastrophic it could be if they acted ungraciously toward her or her child

c

In Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury, phrases such as “my faithful and loving people,” “the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects,” and “you have deserved rewards and crowns” are examples of a rhetorical appeal to

pathos because she is encouraging the troops by explaining exactly why she has faith in them.
pathos because she is encouraging the troops by attempting to elicit their feelings of loyalty.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by reminding them of rewards they will receive.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by listing the reasons England is relying on them.

b

Which excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury rely on a rhetorical appeal to ethos to persuade soldiers that she is a capable commander? Check all that apply.

I do not desire to live to distrust.
I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman.
I have the heart and stomach of a king.
I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder.
I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time.

4&5

Which statement best describes Queen Elizabeth’s use of rhetorical appeals in this excerpt?

She relies on logos by listing for Parliament some of her personal reasons for wanting to remain unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by attempting to make the members of Parliament feel sorry for her and the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on logos by providing reasons why Parliament should not worry about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by making the members of Parliament feel foolish for worrying about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.

c

Which excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry rely on a rhetorical appeal to logos to persuade her audience that even if she produced an heir it would not guarantee England’s prosperity or safety? Check all that apply.

I give you all my hearty thanks for the good zeal and loving care you seem to have.
You may well assure yourselves, my meaning is not to determine any thing.
I always continued in this determination, although my youth and words may seem to some hardly to agree together, yet is it most true.
The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm.
For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

4&5

The primary purpose of both Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry is to

entertain.
persuade.
inform.
criticize.

b

In the excerpts from Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry, which best describes the types of rhetorical appeals used by Queen Elizabeth to convince her audience that she was trustworthy?

She used an appeal to logos when addressing both the troops and members of Parliament.
She used an appeal to logos when addressing the troops and an appeal to pathos when addressing Parliament.
She used an appeal to pathos when addressing both the troops and members of Parliament.
She used an appeal to pathos when addressing the troops and an appeal to logos when addressing Parliament.

C

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that one bad apple can spoil all the others?

. . . it is vitally important to store hard fruit through the whole year.
Place them carefully in your fruit house or “hoard house” on clean dry straw . . .
. . . make sure they are not touching each other . . .
. . . turn them very carefully every month to avoid their collecting moisture.

c

Which statement is a logical inference based on details in the passage?

During the Elizabethan period, food was often scarce.
During the Elizabethan period, houses were very cheap.
During the Elizabethan period, sheep were in short supply.
During the Elizabethan period, food was mainly shipped in.

a
If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.
What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?to explain why many Elizabethans tried poaching
to explain why poaching was dangerous
to explain why landowners punished poachers
to explain why poaching often was forgiven
b

The purpose of fasting on Wednesdays is specifically to encourage the eating of fish, to support the fishing industry. People therefore respond differently. Some households uphold the old religious fasts during Advent and Lent, as if they are still observing the religious law; others ignore Advent but observe the Lenten fast. Still others ignore Wednesdays and just fast on Fridays and Saturdays.

Why does the author use third-person point of view in this excerpt?

The author wants to present factual information effectively.
The author wants to draw the reader deeper into the experience.
The author wants to directly address the audience.
The author wants to persuade the reader of his idea.

a

The underlying reasons for such differences are not hard to find. In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider. A wide flat field is “finer” than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread. A small thatched cottage, which a modern viewer might consider pretty, will be considered unattractive by an Elizabethan traveler, for cottagers are generally poor and able to offer little in the way of hospitality. Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see. Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

Which detail gives implicit information about the modern view of the Elizabethan landscape?

In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider.
A wide flat field is “finer” than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread.
Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see.
Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks

c

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that farm animals were very valuable in Elizabethan England?

Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence.
Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law . . .
It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit . . .
If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault.

a

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season. Harvest is obviously a time of much grain and fruit.

Which ideas are implicitly stated in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

Food was more valuable in Elizabethan times than it is today.
Detached houses are cheaper than large flocks of sheep.
Difficulty in food transportation limited food availability.
Not many Elizabethans ate exotic fruit.
Food was more scarce during the winter months.
More people had food during harvest season

4,5,&6

But you still have producers holding back corn supplies, even though hoarding is forbidden by law. In Stratford in 1597 seventy-five townsmen are found guilty of hoarding corn, including William Shakespeare, who is hanging on to ten quarters of malt. Worse than this, “engrossers” buy up all the local supply of an important commodity, such as eggs or butter, in order to drive up the price. In the 1590s certain unscrupulous businessmen buy up to twenty thousand pounds of butter—and this is disastrous because it is an important part of people’s diet. Combined with hoarding, this has dramatic consequences for the poor. In some places the famine of 1594-97 proves as deadly as the plague of 1563.

The details from this excerpt support the inference that

even the rich suffered during times of famine.
the laws prevented the rich from hoarding food.
the rich often still prospered while the poor starved.
many of the rich prevented the poor from starving to death.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

In such circumstances, storage of food is most important. The principal rule is to have separate places for different types of commodity: dry things can be kept in a pantry with bread and dry linen; wet things are normally stored in the buttery. Wine and meat must be kept apart, and cellars should be avoided on account of their dampness. Meat should be seethed in summer to keep it fresh, then kept in a cool cellar, soaked in vinegar with juniper seeds and salt. Most yeomen will have vats and presses for making cheeses—a valuable source of protein in the long winter season. Similarly, most livestock owners have troughs for salting meat or allowing it to steep in brine.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

to explain how easy it was to store food properly during Elizabethan times
to explain how the proper way to store food was taught to Elizabethan cooks
to explain the complexities of proper food storage during Elizabethan times
to explain the errors people made trying to store food properly during Elizabethan times

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Pig farmers keep their flitches of bacon back in storage until they can get a better price for them later in the winter. Such tactics are made even more profitable by the unhappy fact that harvests can fail, causing local—and sometimes national—food shortages. Large towns are less vulnerable, being part of an international market that sees preserved foods traded long-distance; but much of the countryside is dependent on fresh food. After a poor harvest, prices for all commodities—not just grain—rise dramatically and the poor are unable to make ends meet.

Which detail from the excerpt best supports the inference that food was more consistently available in larger towns?

Pig farmers keep their flitches of bacon back in storage until they can get a better price for them later in the winter.
Such tactics are made even more profitable by the unhappy fact that harvests can fail, causing local—and sometimes national—food shortages.
Large towns are less vulnerable, being part of an international market that sees preserved foods traded long-distance; but much of the countryside is dependent on fresh food.
After a poor harvest, prices for all commodities—not just grain—rise dramatically and the poor are unable to make ends meet.

c
A summary is a statement of a text’s central ideas in one’s
own words

The theory of the humors is just the basic framework into which physicians fit a number of other ideas. Galen teaches that every living thing is composed of the four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. Each of these corresponds with one of the four humors. Fire, which is said to be hot and dry, corresponds with choler; water (cold and wet) with phlegm; earth (dry and cold) with black bile; and air (hot and wet) with blood. These properties are all associated with parts of the body, so the brain is cold and moist, the kidneys hot and moist, and so on. If an imbalance in the humors clashes with the properties of an organ, the patient will be ill.

Which sentence best summarizes the excerpt?

Water was thought to be cold and wet, so it was associated with phlegm.
Elizabethans believed that the balance of the four humors would keep them healthy.
Galen taught Elizabethan doctors about fire, water, earth, and air.
Air was the most important humor because it corresponded with blood.

b
When analyzing the development of a text’s central ideas, readers should consider
how central ideas cnnect

The grim reality is that plague in the capital is as common as the stench of the cesspits and almost as unavoidable. You cannot predict where it will strike: People living next door to infected houses are left unaffected. Some people are not touched even when others in their own house have it.

Which sentence best summarizes the excerpt?

The plague was unavoidable, and unpredictable in regards to whom it would affect.
The plague was associated with filthy cesspits. It was a dirty disease with a foul odor.
People in diseased homes should certainly have left immediately to avoid infection.
The capital was the center of all medical care, and Elizabethans came for treatment.

a

Which line best helps develop the central idea that the plague was a very deadly disease?

“Elizabethans do not understand infection and contagion as we do.”
“In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070 . . .”
“This last epidemic originates in Portugal and is brought to Devon by mariners.”
“It is ironic that the great naval ships that deliver the English from the Spanish threat bring another danger . . .”

b

Serious though influenza and malaria are, they are not the biggest killers of the age. That title belongs to the plague or “pestilence.” No one knows precisely how many die over the course of the reign but the total is probably around 250,000. In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070, almost 20 percent of the population. Ten years later, after another deadly outbreak, they record a further 2,000 fatalities.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Another name for the plague in the 1500s was “the pestilence.”
In 1565 almost 20 percent of the population died of the plague.
The plague was the most deadly disease of the Elizabethan era.
Malaria and influenza killed almost as many people as the plague.

c

Elizabethan people suffer from some afflictions that no longer exist in modern England. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Sweating sickness kills tens of thousands of people on its first appearance in 1485 and periodically thereafter. It is a terrifying disease because sufferers die within hours. It doesn’t return after a particularly bad outbreak in 1556 but people do not know whether it has gone for good; they still fear it, and it continues to be part of the medical landscape for many years.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans suffered from diseases that are unfamiliar to modern readers?

It lists diseases found only in modern England.
It describes the plague in great detail.
It gives a description of the English landscape.
It provides the example of sweating sickness.

d

Which sentence is an example of an objective summary?

Mortimer is a witty writer who adds humor to history.
It must have been horrible to live in Elizabethan times.
Quality health care today is wonderful, but overpriced.
Modern medicine has changed dramatically since the 1500s.

d

There is no concept of “health and safety” in Elizabethan England, so you will inevitably feel vulnerable when you arrive. Nauseating smells and sights will assail your senses; contemporary standards of cleanliness will worry you. People die every day from unknown ailments, the young as often as the old. Infectious diseases periodically kill thousands within a few weeks. Even when plague is not in town, it lurks as an anxiety in the back of people’s minds and, when it does strike, their worry turns to terror. On top of the illnesses, the chances of being attacked and hurt are much higher than in the modern world, and workplace injuries are far more common.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Infectious diseases, like the plague, killed many people.
Infectious diseases were a great source of concern.
Elizabethans faced health challenges similar to ours today.
Elizabethans faced a variety of challenges in staying healthy.

d

Elizabethans do not understand infection and contagion as we do. It is not that they are completely ignorant as to how illnesses spread—physicians believe they know perfectly well—it is rather that their understanding is very different from ours. The principal ideas underpinning most Elizabethan medical thinking come from Galen, who lived in the second century A.D. Physicians will cite him as an unquestionable authority when they explain to you that your health depends on a balance of the four humors: yellow bile or choler, black bile, phlegm, and blood. If there is too much choler in your body, you will grow choleric; too much blood and you will be sanguine; too much phlegm and you will be phlegmatic; and too much black bile makes you melancholic. It is from these imbalances that sickness arises.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethan beliefs influenced their understanding of disease?

It provides details about Galen’s medical training.
It compares modern and Elizabethan techniques.
It details the belief that bodily humors affect health.
It describes popular Elizabethan treatments.

c

Descriptive details help the reader

eliminate unnecessary information.
present information in a logical way.
organize details in order of importance.
envision a concept or scenario.

d

More theaters open their doors to the public. The Rose is built by Philip Henslowe at Southwark, not far from the bear-baiting and bull-baiting arenas, in 1587. Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599.

Which theater opened last?

Southwark
the Swan
the Rose
Blackfriars

d

In 1574 the city authorities are given powers to restrict playhouses, forcing the actors to find new premises in the suburbs. This becomes a golden opportunity for John Brayne and his brother-in-law, James Burbage, who in 1576 build a new theater, simply called The Theatre, at Shoreditch, just half a mile north of Bishopsgate. The following year a second theater, the Curtain, is built just two hundred yards away. Despite some heavy opposition from Puritan preachers and moralists, both theaters are successful.

Which sentence accurately describes the progression of events?

Because successful theaters were built outside of the city, many theaters shut down in the suburbs.
Because John Brayne built a new theater, city authorities restricted playhouses.
Because city authorities restricted playhouses, new theaters were built outside city limits and grew to be successful.
Because the Curtain was built in the suburbs, Puritan preachers began to oppose theaters in the city

c

Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599. Most important of all, Shakespeare, Richard and Cuthbert Burbage, and their partners dismantle The Theatre and remove its beams to a new site at Southwark, where it is rebuilt in 1599 as the Globe. When Edward Alleyn builds the Fortune on the northern edge of the city in 1600, the array of Elizabethan theaters is complete.

How does the author effectively show the establishment of Elizabethan theaters?

by using a humorous and lighthearted tone.
by randomly listing when certain theaters were built in the past.
by using a grave and critical tone.
by listing in chronological order when several important theaters were built.

d

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

“At the start of the reign the majority of productions are miracle plays . . .”
“. . . a prompter goes to each actor in turn and whispers his speech to him, line by line.”
“. . . people increasingly choose to see secular plays on historical and moral themes.”
“If there are any female parts, these are played by boys dressed as women.

a

In 1587 Thomas Kyd produces The Spanish Tragedy, and soon afterward Christopher Marlowe brings out the first part of Tamburlaine the Great. . . . They employ new verse forms, allowing different spoken rhythms, and compose bold speeches with greater resonance and meaning. The new conceptual framework of a revenge tragedy in particular allows them to portray powerful emotions voiced by strong characters. Suddenly it is possible to show so much more passion on the stage.

What was the most direct cause of the more passionate performances?

the play The Spanish Tragedy
the new verse forms and conceptual framework
the collaboration of Kyd and Marlowe
the play Tamburlaine the Great

b

Organization, tone, and word choice should be considered when evaluating effective

definitions and key terms.
grammar and punctuation.
transitions and introductions.
text structure and style.

d

Which excerpt most effectively conveys a conversational and engaging tone?

“Although many players visit Stratford in Shakespeare’s youth, the town’s corporation prohibits traveling actors from performing there in 1602.”
“The Lord Admiral’s Men have Edward Alleyn: a very tall and powerful man who roars his part as he crosses the stage.”
“You will see people standing in hats with pipes in hand, and women in their headdresses, all chatting, with an eye open for people they know.”
“There are two large columns, both elaborately painted, which support the roof that covers the back of the stage.”

c

What should a reader consider when tracing chronological text structure? Check all that apply.

the meaning behind the events
the causal relationships between events
the responses and reactions to events
the factors that influence events
the author’s purpose in describing the events

3,4,&5

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

“Unfortunately this is located too far from the city . . .”
“The queen continues to encourage dramatic art . . .”
“Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan . . .”
“Thomas Nashe brings forth his masterpiece . . .”

c

Which question should writers ask in order to consider their audience?

When is my writing due?
Who will read my writing?
How long should my writing be?
How will I reach my writing goal?

b

In Parasite, author Mira Grant’s writing style helps readers examine the dangers of medical technology. Grant uses precise wording to help readers grasp advanced medical concepts. Her clear style allows readers to explore a world that might otherwise be beyond them.

What is the best thing for the writer to add to the paragraph to make it more effective?

a concluding statement
a specific point
supporting evidence
a topic sentence

c

At what point should a writer introduce evidence in a paragraph?

in the topic sentence
before making a point
after making a point
in the concluding statement

c

When a reader evaluates an author’s style, the reader

memorizes passages of interest.
adopts an attitude toward the text.
summarizes the main topics in the text.
judges it in a careful and thoughtful way.

d

The playwright created a tragedy with nice characterizations.

Which underlined word would be the best to replace in order to create more precise wording?

playwright
tragedy
nice
characterizations

c

Lukas follows these steps when reading a text.

Identify the author’s purpose.
Analyze elements of the author’s style.
Determine how the style supports the purpose.
Lukas is the author’s style.

evaluating

1.) It is easy to write the line “people starve to death”; it is much harder to deal with the harsh reality. 2.) But you need to understand this point, if only to see how little choice you might have in what you eat. 3.) The itinerant poor might literally die in the street.

In what way is the second sentence effective?

It highlights the number of impoverished people in Elizabethan England.
It explains how the reader can avoid dealing with the hungry poor.
It illustrates how the diet of Elizabethan England can benefit the reader.
It emphasizes why this passage is important to the reader personally.

d

The purpose of adding relevant evidence to a paragraph is to

add a point.
support a point.
introduce a topic.
conclude a topic.

b

The writer has a very accomplished style. His descriptions make the facts more dramatic for the reader.

Which sentence would further develop the paragraph by providing evidence to support the point?

In addition to providing facts, the writer uses a variety of interesting words.
The writer repeats the word “deadly” so much that it becomes alarming.
Last night, I couldn’t stop thinking, “Wow,” about what the writer said.
The writer has good control of his language, tone, and point of view.

b
To make their language as precise as possible, writers should consider the , or suggested meanings, of words.
connotations

The concert attendees roared their approval. The band played a new song.

Which revision uses a subordinating conjunction to combine the two sentences?

The concert attendees roared their approval; meanwhile, the band played a new song.
The concert attendees roared their approval while the band played a new song.
The concert attendees roared their approval, so the band played a new song.
The concert attendees roared their approval and the band played a new song.

b

The rocket is fully fueled, and the liftoff is scheduled for next week. The journey to the space station should take five hours, but it could take longer. The mission control team is very experienced, so the launch should go smoothly.

How can the passage best be described?

It has all complex sentences.
It has all compound sentences.
The coordinating conjunctions are used incorrectly.
The subordinating conjunctions are used incorrectly.

c
A(n) makes clauses dependent
subordinating conjuction

Which are independent clauses? Check all that apply.

although we walked to the store
they decided to take a long walk
we were able to arrive on schedule
since they will present their paper
he was unsure how to proceed

2,3,&5

Recently, in the waning dark hours just before dawn, the mother raccoon clambered up the side of the tree, where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk. The next evening, she moved into the tree with her two cubs.

Which section of the passage is a dependent clause?

in the waning dark hours just before dawn
the mother raccoon clambered up the side of the tree
where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk
she moved into the tree with her two cubs

c

The panther paused to sniff the humid night air. It heard noises up ahead, but it did not recognize the sounds. The strange noises continued, and the panther became frightened. The panther crept into a cave because it was afraid.

Which sentence from the passage is complex?

The panther paused to sniff the humid night air.
It heard noises up ahead, but it did not recognize the sounds.
The strange noises continued, and the panther became frightened.
The panther crept into a cave because it was afraid

d

after the conversation with her publisher, when she decided to write an autobiography

Which revision changes the dependent clause into an independent clause?

After the conversation with her publisher, because she decided to write an autobiography.
Since the conversation with her publisher, when she decided to write an autobiography.
After having the conversation with her publisher, when she decided to write an autobiography.
After the conversation with her publisher, she decided to write an autobiography.

d

meanwhile, with the golden and yellow

How should the writer revise the phrase to make it a clause?

by adding a subject and a verb
by deleting the coordinating conjunction
by changing the conjunctive adverb
by replacing the adjectives

a

Which is a compound sentence?

While my brother takes his dance class, I go to soccer practice.
We can watch the movie after we’ve finished the book.
I painted my bedroom beige, but my sister painted her room blue.
They like to borrow our telescope when it’s clear enough to see the moon.

c

The night was cold and windy. We stayed outside to study the constellations.

Which revision correctly uses a conjunctive adverb to link the two ideas?

Our breath frosted the night air; nevertheless, we lingered outside to study the constellations.
Our breath frosted the night air, yet we lingered outside to study the constellations.
Our breath frosted the night air; but, we lingered outside to study the constellations.
Our breath frosted the night air, however we lingered outside to study the constellations

a

Exercise is important because it can help people strengthen their bones and muscles. ________, it can have a positive effect on mood.

Which word best fits in the blank?

Conversely
Therefore
Additionally
However

c

The driving age should be increased to nineteen years old nationwide to make the roads safer for everyone. (2) This would decrease the number of people who lose their lives in car accidents. (3) Drivers ages sixteen to nineteen are almost three times more likely than drivers age twenty or older to be in a fatal crash. (4) That being said, there may be other ways to decrease the number of accidents involving teen drivers, such as offering more rigorous driver’s education classes and issuing tougher seat belt laws.

Which is a possible rebuttal to the counterclaim?

Those solutions may make the road safer, but increasing the driving age is proven to save significantly more lives, according to studies comparing different state laws.
In addition to these solutions, teenagers should not be allowed to drive with other teens in the car, as this also increases the risk that they will get into an accident.
Any law that regulates teenage driving could save lives, whether it increases the driving age, increases the penalty for driving without a seat belt, or limits who can be in the car.
New laws and tougher driver’s education courses are important, because many teenagers drive to school, help drive younger siblings, and drive to after-school jobs.

a

What is the correct way to lay out an effective argument?

1. State a claim. 2. State a counterclaim. 3. Provide a rebuttal. 4. Provide a reason. 5. Support the reason with evidence.
1. Provide a reason. 2. Support the reason with evidence. 3. Suggest a claim. 4. Address a counterclaim. 5. Provide a rebuttal.
1. State a claim. 2. Provide a reason. 3. Support the reason with evidence. 4. Address a counterclaim. 5. Provide a rebuttal.
1. State a counterclaim. 2. Provide a reason. 3. Support the reason with evidence. 4. Provide a rebuttal. 5. Restate the claim.

c

Which words or phrases can be used in an argument to show difference? Check all that apply.

Conversely
For example
In addition
Although
However
In contrast

1,3,4,5

An idea or opinion that opposes a counterclaim is called a

proposal.
reason.
rebuttal.
detail.

c

Which graphic would best show how increasing the driving age nationwide would lead to decreased fatalities on the road?

a chart that displays road fatalities in states that have similar driving ages
a chart that displays road fatalities in states that have different driving ages
a chart that displays road fatalities in one state that has a low driving age
a chart that displays road fatalities in one state that has increased its driving age

b

Which phrase can be used to sum up or conclude an argument?

As a result
As an example
Compared to
In addition

a

Claim: The city should reduce the rate of subways and buses from $2.25 per ride to $1.25 per ride.

Which is an effective counterclaim to this claim?

The current price of public transportation is necessary for paying workers and maintaining safe equipment.
If public transportation were less expensive, more people would be able to utilize it on a daily basis.
The cost of public transportation at the current rate can really add up for a person who travels to work every day.
A person who chooses to use public transportation has several options, including buying a thirty-day pass.

a

Claim: People should use cloth napkins instead of paper napkins because cloth napkins are better for the environment.

Which is a potential counterclaim to this claim?

Thousands of trees are cut down each year to make paper napkins.
Using recycled paper napkins is better for the environment than using white napkins.
Cloth napkins can also be harmful to the environment because washing them wastes water and energy.
When paper napkins are bleached white, dangerous chemicals get into our water supply.

c
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