Eng 101: Understanding the Author’s Purpose

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writing
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a mode of communication
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3 purposes of writing
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persuade, inform, entertain
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every thing that has been writen
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is writen in one or all of these catorgories
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rhetoric
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different approaches to writing
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there are 8 forms of rhetoric
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description, narration,example, division or analysis, classification,process analysis,comparision and contrast, definition, cause and effect analysis, argument and persuasion
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description
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using words to depict or recreate a scene, an object,a person,or a feeling.
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objective description
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strive for precission and objectivity, trying to convey the subject impersonally, without emotion
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subjective description
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you draw explicitly on your emotions, giving an impression of the subject filtered through your experience of it.
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i.e objective description
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a news report on a tropical storm
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i.e. subjective description
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E.B White, Once More to the lake, Judith Ortix Cofer, Silent Dancing
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effective description writing
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requires a dominant impression
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dominant impression
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a central theme or idea about the subject where readers can relate all the details
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one aid in creating a dominant impression
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is a consistant point of view
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point of view
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a position from where you approach the subject
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point of view has two main elements
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real or imagined physical relation to the subject, or a psychological relation to the subject
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a real or imagined i.e
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view a mountain, from the bottom looking up, from fifteen miles away, or as plain passing overhead
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psychological
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you might use i and you freely to distance between yourself and the subject
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developing a descriptive essay
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subject- may be a person, place or state of mind you observed closely enough, or experienced enough to invest special significance
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once you have a subject
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specify in a sentence the impression you want to create for the readers
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the sentence will help keep you on tract
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while you serch for details, and later may be used as the thesis of your essay
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it should evoke a quality
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or atmosphere or effect.
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a good start in choosing the
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sensory detail that will make your description concrete and vivid
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observe your subject directly, recall as many details as i can
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jot down the details that help the most to the impression your trying to make
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consider the needs and expectations
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of your readers
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if the subject is not familier to the readers
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you will need enough objective details to create a complete picture in their minds
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organization
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arrange the details of a subject, so readers are not confused by shifts amoung details
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details
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bring the subjects to life, what you feel, smell ,hear,touch,taste
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narration
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telling a story, using similies and motifiers
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narration cont.
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telling a story with a point or purpose
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may include other rhetorical
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modes like description
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always have some sort of
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begining, and ending point, unlike description
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there are three points in writing
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to persuade, inform, and entertain
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plot mountain
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exposition,rising action, climax, falling action(denouement), resolution
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exposition
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characters and settings are introduced
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rising action
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characters are faced with problems and must overcome problems
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climax
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story reaches a critical turning point,tension has reached it’s highest point
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denouement (falling action)
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tension easses and things start to get worked out in the story
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resolution
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everything gets worked out and the story ends
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three conflicts
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man vs man, man vs society
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i.e of narration
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Langston Hughes, Salvation, George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
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i.e of example
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Anna Quindlen, Homeless, Brent Staples, Black men and Public Space
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i.e of division and classifacation
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Margaret Visser, The Ritual of Fast Food, Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie
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DENOUEMENT
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the untying of the knots, unraveling
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sequencing
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narrative should always have some sort of sequencing
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usually chronological
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should be in the begining
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journalist approach
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who,what,where,why,how
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narrator/ point of view
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personal,first person,third person
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personal
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assume that the narrator is the author
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first person
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uses i
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third person
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not involved in story, names characters may not have a name themselves
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narration knowledge
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omniscient, or limited
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omniscient narration
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knows all characters thoughts and feeling
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limited narration
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