Endocrine System Medical Terminology Chapter 16

The gland that is approximately the size of a pea and is located at the base of the brain is called the:
pituitary gland

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also called the:
neurohypophysis

The parathyroid glands are:
four small bodies embedded in the posterior lobes of the thyroid gland

The adrenal glands are:
paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney

The hormone that regulates development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes is:
follicle-stimulating hormone

The hormone that affects the male and female reproductive systems is:
gonadotropic hormone

Hydrocortisone is also called:
cortisol

The pituitary gland is also called the:
hypophysis cerebri

Which of the following is true of the thyroid gland?
It is the largest endocrine gland.

The combining form meaning the outer layer of a body organ is:
cortic/o

The combining form meaning parathyroid glands is:
parathyroid/o

Adenohypophysis is another name for the:
anterior pituitary lobe

A test to assess a child’s growth hormone levels would focus on the functioning of the:
pituitary gland

The combining form meaning calcium is:
calc/i

The combining form meaning gland is:
aden/o

The combining form meaning sodium is:
natr/o

The meaning of the medical term corticoid is:
resembling the cortex

ADH is the abbreviation for:
antidiuretic hormone

The medical term isthmus refers to a(n):
narrow strip of tissue connecting two large parts in the body

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by the:
adrenal medulla

This hormone is necessary for body cell metabolism:
thyroxine

___________ secretes a “releasing hormone” that stimulates or inhibits the release pituitary gland hormones:
hypothalamus

PRH is the abbreviation for:
prolactin-releasing hormone

A narrow strip of tissue that connects two larger structures, for example, the tissue between the two lobes of the thyroid gland, is called a(n):
isthmus

Correctly identify endocrine gland 1# on the illustration.
Adrenals

Correctly identify endocrine gland 2# on the illustration.
Parathyroid

Correctly identify endocrine gland 3# on the illustration.
Thyroid

Correctly identify endocrine gland 4# on the illustration.
Thymus

Correctly identify endocrine gland 5# on the illustration.
Pancreas

The combining form meaning extremities, height is:
acr/o

The combining form meaning thirst is:
dips/o

The medical term that means abnormal protrusion of the eyeball is:
exophthalmos

The medical term referring to normal thyroid function is:
euthyroid

William’s adrenal cortices are secreting excessive levels of cortisol, giving him a “moon face” and abnormal pads of fat on his chest, abdomen, and upper back. He also is experiencing muscle atrophy. His physician determines that William has ___.
Cushing syndrome

A patient diagnosed with ___ presents with signs such as insulin resistance, obesity focused on the waist and abdomen, hypertension, and elevated glycemic and triglyceride levels (with low HDL levels).
metabolic syndrome

The condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies as a result of excessive fat metabolism:
ketosis

The medical term that means inflammation of the adrenal gland is:
adrenalitis

Alexis’s headaches, chest and abdominal pain, and palpitations turn out to be pheochromocytoma, which is a(n):
non-malignant tumor of the adrenal medulla

The meaning of the medical term adrenomegaly is:
enlargement of (one or both of) the adrenal glands

The meaning of the medical term acromegaly is a(n):
enlargement of the extremities

The medical term meaning excessive sugar in the blood is:
hyperglycemia

The medical term meaning deficient level of potassium in the blood is:
hypokalemia

The meaning of the medical term hypocalcemia is:
deficient level of calcium in the blood

The medical term that means condition of excessive thyroid gland activity is:
hyperthyroidism

The meaning of the medical term thyroiditis is inflammation of the
thyroid gland

The medical term for the condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy of the thyroid gland that results in hypothyroidism and characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, a large tongue, and dwarfism is:
cretinism

The medical term for the condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of the acid products of metabolism and seen frequently in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus:
acidosis

Alicia has experienced recent weight loss, irritability and heat intolerance. The thyroid disorder that most closely matches Alicia’s symptoms is:
hyperthyroidism

A patient who has reported recent weight gain and cold intolerance is diagnosed with ___, which is a state of deficient thyroid gland activity and diminished secretion of thyroid hormones.
hypothyroidism

The meaning of the medical term thyrotoxicosis is a condition:
caused by excessive thyroid hormones

The meaning of the medical term gigantism is a condition:
brought about by hypersecretion of growth hormone

The medical term for a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos is
Graves disease

A deficiency of parathyroid hormone has led to a decrease in Mr. Clark’s blood calcium, resulting in ___, a nerve condition that causes muscle spasms.
tetany

The abbreviation of the medical term referring to the result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland causing polydipsia and polyuria is:
DI

The meaning of the medical term adrenopathy is:
disease of the adrenal gland

The medical term that describes a serious, chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretions of all three categories of adrenal steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex is:
Addison disease

The medical term meaning pertaining to the cortex is:
cortical

A syndrome is best defined as:
a set of signs and symptoms

The medical term parathyroidectomy refers to excision of
the parathyroid gland

The medical term adrenalectomy refers to excision of:
an adrenal gland

The medical term thyroidectomy refers to a procedure involving:
the thyroid gland

The medical term that refers to a blood study that gives a direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the patient’s blood is:
thyroxine level

FBS abbreviates the medical term for a:
blood test that determines the amount of glucose in the blood

To measure long-term blood glucose control, a(n) _____ hemoglobin test is done.
glycosylated

_____ is a test that assesses thyroid function by testing the ability of the thyroid gland to trap and retain radioactive iodine following oral ingestion of the iodine.
Radioactive iodine uptake

The nuclear medicine test that shows the size, shape, and function of the thyroid gland is:
thyroid scan

The word part needed to complete the term meaning incision of the thyroid gland, thyroid/o/_____, is:
tomy

The abbreviation for the medical term for the procedure that assesses thyroid function by testing the ability of the thyroid gland to trap and retain radioactive iodine following oral ingestion of the iodine is:
RAIU

The abbreviation for the test that measures the average blood sugar concentration over a period of time is:
HbA1C

The name of the procedure that measures the amount of glucose in the blood at the time of the test is:
FBS

The name of the procedure that measures thyroid function is:
radioactive iodine uptake

The procedure that measures average blood sugar concentration over a period of time is:
a glycosylated hemoglobin test

The patient had surgery to excise a gland. Based on this information only, it is most accurate to say that he had a(n):
adenectomy

Tomas’s thyroid tumor is treated by surgical removal. Surgical incision into Tomas’s thyroid gland is called:
thyroidotomy

A patient has his thyroid and parathyroid glands surgically removed in a procedure called:
thyroparathyroidectomy

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