EMT chapter 6

Flashcard maker : Rosa Sloan
5 separate bones associated with the skull
Mandible
Maxillae
Zygomatic arches
Nasal bones
Orbits
5 regions of the spinal column
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Coccyx
6 bones/types of bones associated with the arm and hand
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
4 major structures of the female reproductive system
Ovaries
Fallopian tubes
Uterus
Vagina
primary functions of the renal system
The renal system helps the body regulate fluid levels, filter chemicals, and adjust body pH.
where is the spleen?
upper left quadrant
3 functions of the musculoskeletal system
The musculoskeletal system functions to give the body shape, to protect vital internal organs, and to provide for body movement.
5 divisions of the spine, describe the location of each
Cervical: neck
Thoracic: upper back
Lumbar: lower back
Sacral: posterior pelvis
Coccyx: distal spine, posterior pelvis
describe physical processes of inhalation and exhalation
During inhalation, the muscles of the rib cage and the diaphragm contract. The diaphragm lowers, and the ribs move upward and outward, which expands the chest and creates a negative pressure inside the chest cavity that pulls air into the lungs. During exhalation, the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax. The ribs move downward and inward, while the diaphragm rises, causing the chest to decrease in size and positive pressure to build inside the chest cavity, which pushes air out of the lungs.
4 places a peripheral pulse may be felt
The four places where a peripheral pulse may be palpated are the radial artery, brachial artery, carotid artery, and femoral artery.
describe CNS and PNS
The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain receives information from the body and, in turn, sends impulses to different areas of the body to respond to internal and external changes. The spinal cord rests within the spinal column and stretches from the brain to the lumbar vertebrae. Nerves branch from each part of the cord and reach throughout the body. The peripheral nervous system consists of two types of nerves: sensory and motor. The sensory nerves pick up information from throughout the body and transmit it to the spinal cord and brain. The motor nerves carry messages from the brain to the body.
3 functions of the skin
The functions of the skin include protection, water balance, temperature regulation, excretion, and shock absorption.
The thyroid gland and adrenal glands are part of​ the:
endocrine system
Which of the following is part of the​ cranium?
Occipital bones
The​ leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea is called​ the:
epiglottis.
If oxygen is not present in sufficient​ supply, the body will shift​ to:
anaerobic metabolism.
A condition that reduces the number of​ oxygen-carrying red blood cells​ is:
anemia.
The muscular tube between the stomach and the large​ intestine, divided into the​ duodenum, the​ jejunum, and the​ ileum, is​ the:
small intestine
Which of the following is TRUE about respiratory anatomy in infants and​ children?
The tongue of an infant or child takes up proportionally more space in the pharynx than an​ adult’s.
Why is it critical to manage swelling of the pediatric​ patient’s airway
Because of the small diameter of the pediatric airway
The cervical spine is formed​ by:
the first seven vertebrae.
Which of the following structures is part of the digestive​ system?
Gallbladder
Automaticity is the ability of the heart to generate and conduct what on its​ own?
Electrical impulses
Specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart is​ called:
cardiac muscle.
Which of the following muscles divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and is a major muscle of​ respiration?
diaphragm
The system of​ brain, spinal​ cord, and nerves that govern​ sensation, movement, and thought is known generally as​ the:
nervous system.
The kidneys are vital components of​ the:
urinary system.
Functions of the skeletal system​ include:
allowing for movement.
The brain and spinal cord make up​ the:
central nervous system.
After leaving a​ capillary, blood enters what structure on its trip back to the​ heart?
Venule
Epinephrine is secreted by​ the:
adrenal gland
Which gland in involved in the​ fight-or-flight response?
The adrenals
The nerves that are located outside the spinal cord and brain are parts of​ the:
peripheral nervous system.
The two primary muscles that are used for breathing are the diaphragm and​ the:
intercostal muscles.
Which of the following is a sign of sympathetic nervous system​ stimulation?
Increased heart rate
Which of the following is a function of the respiratory​ system?
Ventilation and oxygenation
During​ exhalation, the size of the thoracic​ cavity:
decreases.
The​ tonsils, thymus, and spleen are components of​ the:
lymphatic system.
Compared to​ adults, the​ infant’s rib cage toward the bottom is not​ as:
curved inward
Inadequate circulation of blood throughout the body is known​ as:
shock
The only movable part of the skull is​ the:
mandible.
The anatomical differences between the pediatric and adult airways require​ that:
specific considerations be taken in treating the infant for respiratory issues.
The proximal end of the ulna helps to form​ the:
elbow
One of the byproducts of metabolism without oxygen​ is:
lactic acid.
What is the name for the small sacs in the lungs where the exchange of gases takes​ place?
Alveoli.
The basic function of the pulmonary system that is known as ventilation​ involves:
the movement of gases to and from the alveoli
What structure in the musculoskeletal system is designed to connect a bone to another​ bone?
ligament
This type of muscle is generally attached at one or both ends to a bone by tendons.
Skeletal
Which of the following BEST describes the medical condition of​ shock?
Inadequate circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures
What is the strongest and most muscular part of the​ heart?
L ventricle
What are the two most easily injured portions of the​ spine?
Cervical and lumbar
Which of the following makes up more than half of the volume of blood in the​ body?
Plasma
Which of the following organs functions as a reservoir for blood that can be used in case of blood​ loss?
Spleen
The brain is a part of​ the:
central nervous system.
in the term​ “cardiovascular,” the​ “vascular” part relates​ to:
the blood vessels.
Which of the following body systems primarily produces​ hormones?
Endocrine
Which of the following is the primary function of the​ stomach?
Chemical breakdown of food by acidic secretions
The tibia is also referred to​ as:
the shinbone.
The bone most commonly fractured with a​ “broken hip” is​ the:
femur
A​ child’s ________ takes up proportionally more space in the pharynx than does an​ adult’s.
tongue
You are caring for a​ 47-year-old male patient with chest​ pain, the classic suggestion of a myocardial infarction. Based on your understanding of the cardiovascular​ system, you know he could be suffering from​ damage, narrowing, or blockage of what​ arteries?
Coronary arteries
Which of the following is NOT part of the lower​ extremities?
carpals
Physiology is the study​ of:
body function.
Which of the following structures receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the vena​ cavae?
r atrium
What are the small bones that make up the wrist​ called?
Carpals
The​ “fight-or-flight” response is activated by​ the:
sympathetic nervous system.
A femoral pulse can be​ felt:
in the center of the body.
The lower jaw bone is also known as​ the:
mandible.
What type of muscles control the size of the bronchioles in the​ lungs?
Smooth
The patella sits what to the knee​ joint?
anterior
Which component of blood is responsible for forming clotting factors to stop​ bleeding?
Platelets
Which of the following structures allows food to move from the mouth to the​ stomach?
Esophagus
The pressure against the walls of the blood vessels as blood is ejected from the heart and circulates through the body is the​ ________ blood pressure.
systolic
Which organ is the principal organ of the renal​ system?
Kidney
An artery is a blood vessel that​ only:
carries blood away from the heart.
Failure of the liver would result in which of the​ following?
Inability to detoxify harmful substances in the bloodstream

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