EMT-B Basic Final Exam Review

question

Who sets the curriculum for all EMS courses?
answer

DOT
question

Provides national standards for EMT testing and certification.
answer

National Registery
question

Physician who authorizes/delegates authority to provide medical care in the field.
answer

Medical Control
question

Recognition, patient assesment, continued assesment and stabilization in hospital, definitive care.
answer

Continuum of Care
question

Types of stress include:
answer

Cumulative, post-traumatic stress reaction, eustruss, acute stress, and chronic stress
question

S/S of stress include:
answer

Increased respiratory rate, heart rate, and B/P, vasodilation, dialted pupils, tensed muscles, increased glucose levels, perspiration, deacreased blood flow to gastrointestinal tract, irritability, inability to concentrate, difficult or increased sleeping, anxiety, guilt, loss of appetite, decreased sexual activity, loss of interest in work, alcholism, drug use.
question

Management of stress includes:
answer

Eliminate stressors, change partners, get rid of negative personalities, change work hours, reduce overtime, change your attitude, don’t obsess over what you can’t change, excercise, diet.
question

Fight or Flight response:
answer

During an acute stress response, the autonomic nervous system is activated and the body increases level of cotricol, adrenilen, and other hormones that produce an increased heart rate, quick breathing, and higher BP. Blood is shunted from extremities to the big muscles to \”fight or flight\”.
question

Routes of transmission include:
answer

Direct – touch or droplets Indirect – spread by inanimate objects Mechanical (vector born) – by insects Biological – Transmissions by which the germs live or grow Airborne – sneezes, coughs Dust – may carry pores, may remain for long periods.
question

Control and prevention of contamination include?
answer

Hand washing, gloves, eye protection, gowns, masks, mask, respirators, barrier devices, and immunizations.
question

Duty to Act is?
answer

An obligation to provide care.
question

Duties include:
answer

Duty to: -Respond -Obey laws and regulations -Operate an emergerncy vehicle reasonably and prudently -Provide care and transportation to expected standard -Provide care and transport consistent with the scope of practice and local medicine protocol -Continue and transport through to its appropriate conclusion
question

The scope of practice is?
answer

Descriptionof what assessment and treatment skills and EMT may legally perform.
question

Implied consent is?
answer

Consent in which a patient is unable to give consent and is provided treatment under the implication they would want treament.
question

Informed consent is?
answer

Permission for treatment given by a patient after the potential risks, benefits, and alternatives to treatment have been explained.
question

Ethics
answer

The discipline dealing with what is good and bad.
question

Standard of care is?
answer

The degree of medical care and skill that is expected of a resonably competent EMT acting in the same or similar circumstances.
question

Confidentiality is?
answer

Communication between you and the patient is considered confindential and can only be released to other medical staff or with a court order.
question

Definite signs of death include:
answer

Obvious mortal damage, dependent lividity, rigor mortis, putrefaction.
question

Obvious mortal damage:
answer

Injuries such as decapitation or non survivable injury.
question

Dependent lividity
answer

Blood settling to the lowest part of the body. \”Pooling\”
question

Rigor mortis
answer

Stiffening of body muscles caused by chemical changes in the body. Develops in the face and jaw, gradually extending downward. Onset is affected by body’s ability to lose temp (thin=fast, fat body=slow). Occurs between 2-12 hours after death
question

putrefaction
answer

Decomposition of body tissue. Occurs between 20-96 hours.
question

Anterioir
answer

Front side of body
question

Posterior
answer

back of the body
question

Midline
answer

Imaginary line drawn vertically from middle of the forehead through the umbilicus floor
question

Midclavicular
answer

Referring to the middle of the clavicle parallel to the midline
question

Midaxillary
answer

Referring to middle of armpit parallel to the midline
question

Superior
answer

Towards the head of the body
question

Inferior
answer

Towards the feet
question

Proximal
answer

Structures closer to the trunk
question

Distal
answer

Structures further from the trunk
question

Medial
answer

Towards middle
question

Lateral
answer

Towards the outside
question

Ventral
answer

Belly side of the body
question

Dorsal
answer

Spinal side of the body
question

Palmar
answer

The palms
question

Plantar
answer

The soles of the feet
question

Apex
answer

Tip of a structure
question

Bilateral
answer

Both sides
question

Unilatral
answer

One side
question

Ipsilateral
answer

Refers to the same side of the body
question

Flexion
answer

bending of a joint
question

Extension
answer

Straightning of a joint
question

Adduction
answer

Moving towards midline
question

Abduction
answer

moving away from midline
question

Skull (cranium) contains:
answer

Occiput temporal regions, parietal region, mandible, zygomas, maxillae, orbit
question

Spine consists of:
answer

Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (4)
question

Thoracic contains:
answer

Ribs (12), spine, sternum, clavical, scapula, lungs, heart, diaphragm.
question

Pelvis consists of:
answer

Illium (crest), ischium (butt bone), and pubis.
question

Femur
answer

Bone located in the thigh
question

Patella
answer

the bone located at the knee
question

Tibia
answer

Anterior bone in the lower leg
question

Fibula
answer

Posterior bone in lower leg
question

Tarsals
answer

Bones in the ankle
question

Metatarsals
answer

the bones that lead to the toes. Also called phalanges
question

Humerus
answer

Sopporting bone of the forearm
question

Radius
answer

Bone in forearm \”on the thumb side\”, larger in the proximal forearm.
question

Ulna
answer

Bone in forearm \”on the little finger side\”, larger in the distal forearm.
question

Carpals
answer

Bones in the wrist
question

Metacarpals
answer

Bones in the foot leading to the phalanges
question

The RUQ contains:
answer

Liver, gallbladder, bile duct, colon, pancreas
question

LUQ contains:
answer

Stomach, spleen, pancreas, colon
question

RLQ contains:
answer

Cecum, small intestines, appendix
question

LLQ contains:
answer

intestines
question

Skeletal muscle (voluntary):
answer

Attaches to the skeleton
question

Striated muscle:
answer

Also called skeletel muscles
question

Smooth muscle (involuntary):
answer

Gastrointestinal tract, urinary systems, blood vessels, bronchi
question

Cardiac Muscle
answer

Only in the heart.
question

Upper airway consists of:
answer

Nasopharynx, nose, pharynyx, mouth, oropharynx, epiglottis
question

Lower airway consists of:
answer

Larynx, trachea, alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, carina, lungs
question

Primary respiratory drive is?
answer

The brain
question

Secondary respiratory drive is?
answer

hypoxic drive. (When oxygen falls, this will stimulate breathing)
question

Main difference between adult and children airway?
answer

Children have smaller and less rigid airways.
question

Adult resp rate is?
answer

12 to 20
question

Child resp rate it?
answer

15 to 30
question

Infant resp rate is?
answer

25 to 50
question

When assessing breathing, breathing should appear:
answer

easy, not labored. You should not be able to see or hear a pt breathing.
question

Inadequate breathing means:
answer

a person cannot move enough air into the lungs with each breath, thus not meeting metabolic needs.
question

Signs of adequate breathing in an adult include:
answer

Non-labored, normal rate, regular rhythm, good audible breath sounds, regular rise and fall of chest, movement of abdomen.
question

Signs of adequate breathing in a pedi include:
answer

non-labored, normal rate, regular rhythm, good audible breath sounds, regular rise and fall of chest, and movement of the abdomen.
question

Inadequate signs of breathing in adult include:
answer

Muscle retractions, pale or cyantoic, cold and damp skin, tripod position, and noisy breathing.
question

Signs of inadequate breathing in an pedi include:
answer

muscle retractions, pale or cyanotic, cold and damp skin, tripod position, nasal flaring, and seesaw respirations.
question

Normal heart adults are:
answer

60 to 100
question

Normal child heart rates are:
answer

70 to 150
question

Normal infant heart rates are:
answer

100 to 160
question

Heart:
answer

A hollow organ that consists of 2 atrias and 2 ventricles. It is an involuntary muscle, controlled by autonomic nervous system.
question

Passageway through the heart:
answer

Blood arrives via the inferior/superior vena cava. It enters the right atrium, goes through the triscuspid valve and into the right ventricle, and then goes through the pulmonary valve to the lungs. The blood then reenters the heart through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium, through the mitral valve, then the left ventricle through the aortic valve.
question

Arteries carry?
answer

Oxygenated blood
question

Veins carry?
answer

Deoxygenated blood
question

Capillaries allow:
answer

Exchange of oxygen and CO2.
question

The body holds how many liters of blood?
answer

5-6 liters.
question

How long does it take the body to pump the entire supply of blood?
answer

one minute.
question

Normal Systolic BP in an adult:
answer

90 to 140 systolic.
question

Normal systolic BP in a child:
answer

80-110 systolic
question

Normal BP in infants:
answer

50-95 systolic
question

Systolic is?
answer

the increased pressure that is caused along the artery with each contraction of the ventrical pulse.
question

Diastolic is?
answer

The residual pressure that remains in the artiers during the relaxing phase of the heart’s cycle, when the left ventricle is at rest.
question

Proper size for BP cuff:
answer

Designed to wrap around the arm 1 to 1 1/2 times and take up 2/3 of the length of the arm from armpit to elbow. Small cuff=false high reading, large= false low reading.
question

What is trending?
answer

Taking vitals more than once to see how your pt is doing.
question

Emergency movement/lifting is:
answer

Moving a pt before initial assessment. *Clothes drag, blanket, arm and arm-to-arm drag
question

Urgent movement/lifting is:
answer

Used for pts with AMS, inadequate ventilations, or shock.
question

Rapid Extrication is required in what situation?
answer

When the pt is in an unsafe vehicle, pt cannot be properly assessed, pt needs immediate intervention/transport, pt requires supine position, or pt blocks access to another seriously injured pt.
question

Non-urgent movement/lift is used when:
answer

The patient and scene are safe.
question

Backboard:
answer

usde for most situations, needs multiple people to make it safe
question

Scoop Stretcher
answer

used when log rolling is not an option
question

Stokes Basket
answer

For high/low angle rescue, caves, etc.
question

Stair Chair
answer

Can be used for small areas or hallways.
question

Ambulance stretcher (wheeled)
answer

Can be used for most situations when there is room and it can roll easily.
question

Blankets
answer

For small spaces or when it is hard to get other equipment into the area.
question

The brain can function for how long before the brain may become severly damaged?
answer

4-6 minutes
question

Cells in the kidney can live how long without oxygen?
answer

up to 45 minutes
question

How much O2 is in the air we breathe?
answer

21%
question

How much O2 is in the air that we exhale?
answer

16%-17%
question

If mouth-to-mask without O2 attatched is given, how much air is the pt receiving?
answer

16%-17%
question

Explain the process of breathing.
answer

O2 reaches body tissues and cells through two seperate but realted processes – breath and circulation. As we inhale, O2 moves from the atmosphere into the lungs then passes from the alveoli in the lungs into the capillaries to oxygenate the blood. At the same time, CO2 produced by the cells in the tissues in the body, moves from the blood into the alveoli. The blood enriched with O2 travels through the the body by pumping of he heart. On exhalation, CO2 is expirated.
question

What is hypoxia?
answer

Dangerous condition in which the the body’s tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen Without interventions, the pt will die within minutes.
question

Heart Attack
answer

Tissues begin to die from lack of O2, weakened heart then pumps blood poorly to rest of body, resulting in systemic shock.
question

Pulmonary Edema
answer

Fluid accumulates in the lungs, making the exchange of )2 and CO2 in the alveoli less efficient.
question

Acute narcotic or sedative overdose
answer

Resp may decrease and become shallow.
question

smoke inhalation/toxic fumes
answer

Causes pulmonary edema and destroys lung tissue, causing problems with gas exchange.
question

Stroke
answer

May cause hypoxia due to facial drooping or may damage respiration center of the brain.
question

Chest Injury
answer

Pain interferes with full chest expansion, thus limiting ventilations. Lung damage itself is secondary to pulmonary contusion, can also prevent gas exchange.
question

Shock
answer

Occurs as a result of injuries that affect the circulatory system. When the circulatory system fails, hypoxia being to set in.
question

COPD
answer

Chronic irritation of the lungs and passageways produces alveolar damage and poor gas exchange.
question

Asthma
answer

Narrowing of the respiratory passages and buildup of mucus causes trapping of air and poor gas exchange.
question

Premature Birth
answer

Pulmonary surfactant is decreased in some premature infants, therefore, prematurity is often associated with hypoxia. The more premature an infant, the worse the hypoxia.
question

What is hypoxic drive?
answer

Backup system to control respirations when O2 levels fall.
question

Oral Adjuncts:
answer

are used to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway. Use to make it easier to suction the oropharynx if neccesary.
question

Oropharyngeal adjunct Indications:
answer

Used on unconscious pts who have no gag reflex and used with BVM.
question

Oropharyngeal adjunct contraindications:
answer

Conscious pt, any pt who has a gag reflex.
question

Nasopharyngeal adjunct indications:
answer

Semiconscious or unconscious pt with itnact gag reflex, pts who will not tolerate an oral airway.
question

Nasopharnygeal adjunct contraindications
answer

Sever head injury wit hblood draining from the noise, hx of fx nasal bones.
question

How do you correctly measure the size of a nasal airway?
answer

From the tip of the nose to earlobe.
question

When suctioning:
answer

Must keep airway clear so that pt can be ventilated properly. If it is not clear, fluids will be forced into the lungs and possibly cause a lung infection.
question

Types of suction devices include:
answer

Plastic, rigid suction tips (Tonsil or Yankauer) Nonrigid plastic catheters call French or Whistle-tip.
question

Preferred oropharynx suctioning device is:
answer

Yankauers (tonsil tip)
question

Preferred nasopharynx suctioning device is:
answer

French whistle.
question

How do you maintain the airway in a pt who is not injured and breathing on his/her own wit hnormal rate and adeqaute tidal volume?
answer

place in the recovery position.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member