# Emperor’s College of Traditional Oriental Medicine,WS200 Winter ’17: Intro to Chemistry Midterm Prep pt.2

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The ration of the mass to its volume. -units are g/mL (solids/liquids) -g/L (gases)
Density
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the equation to figure out the density of an object is.... A cube is 2cm, with a mass 11.2g, what is its density?
mass/volume 11.2/8cm³= 1.4g/cm³
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C x 10ⁿ is
Scientific notation
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in \"C x 10ⁿ\" what is C and what is n?
C-the coefficient (# equal to or greater than 1, less than 10) ⁿ-is the exponent (a positive or negative integer)
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Express the following in scientific notation: 3245 .000003245 3,245,000,000 0.0050607 88 2.45
3.245 x 10³ 3.245 x10⁻⁶ 3.245x 10 (9) 5.0607 x10⁻³ 88 x 10¹ 2.45 x 10⁰
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Mass is not gained or lost in a chemical reaction
Law of Conservation of Mass -Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
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A compound always has the same relative amounts of the elements that compose it -When water is broken down by electrolysis into oxygen and hydrogen, the mass ratio is always ___ to ___
Law of Definite Proportions -Joseph Proust (1797-1804) 8 to 1
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-all matter is composed of small, indivisible particles called atoms -all atoms of a given element are identical both in mass and in chemical properties. Atoms of different elements have different masses and different chemical properties -*atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions* -atoms combine in simple, fixed, whole-number ratios to form compounds
Dalton's Atomic Theory -John Dalton (1808)
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number of protons is
atomic number
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sum of protons and neutrons
atomic mass
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if protons and neutrons are the same, it is said to be:
electronically neutral
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which is the atomic number, which is the atomic mass of ¹²₆C?
¹²C is atomic mass/ number of protons and neutrons in an element ₆C is atomic number/number of protons (lower)
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isotope
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1s 2s 2p 3s
orbitals, 1s fills first
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On the periodic table, a horizontal row is a _____ Elements of the same ____ have properties that tend to vary in a regular fashion. _____ are designated by an _____ _______
period Arabic number 1-7
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Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Mendeleev are known for ______
modern periodic table Mendeleev's appeared first
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On the periodic table, identify: group 1, (IA) group 2, (IIA) group 17 (VIIA) group 18 (VIIIA) Noble gases, Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transitions metals, hologens
group 1, (IA)-alkali metals group 2, (IIA)-alkaline earth metals group 17 (VIIA)- halogens (nonmetals) group 18 (VIIIA)-noble gases (nonmetals)
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hydrogen is considered a _________
nonmetal
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_________ is more reactive than transition metals, but less reactive than alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
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exist naturally as diatomic molecules
halogens, group 17 (V11A)
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-called inert gases -are so named because they do not chemically react with other elements (w/exception of krypton & xenon)
noble gases, group 18 (VIIIA)
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metals can be distinguished from nonmetals by _________ and ability to ________ _________
metals by LUSTER and ability to CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
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elements that are gases at room temperature are also ___________, these are usually dull with exception of carbon.
nonmetals
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-came up with a planetary model, in which electrons orbit the nucleus in circular pathways -based on the idea that electrons and their energies are quantized, they can have only certain values.
Bohr's Planetary Model pt1
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-electron in the H atom can occupy a specific orbit -*energy increases as its distance from the nucleus increases*
Bohr's Planetary Model pt.2
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*When the electron moves from a higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy orbit, it loses energy equal to the difference in energy between orbits.* ∆E=E final -E initial *energy is released as a _________. which is represented as ∆E ∆- stands for what? E- stands for what
*Bohr's Planetary Model pt3 photon ∆-symbol of change E-energy
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Photons going from a high energy orbit to low energy orbit. This is the __________ ____________.
Emission Spectrum (emitting light, will gain stability, better entropy value)
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Photons going from a low energy orbit to a high energy is orbit is ______ _________.
Absorption Spectrum (photons bump up an orbit, this is what plants do)
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Modern model of the atom is based on _______ __________. -This model describes electrons as occupying *ORBITALS NOT ORBITS* -three dimensional regions in space where electrons are likely to be found, not a circular pathway.
Schrodinger's Model
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Modern Model: ______ p orbitals ______ d orbitals ______ f orbitals 7,5,3
3-P 5-D 7-F
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Electrons occupy the lowest-energy orbitals
Aufbau Principle
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No more than two electrons occupy each orbital
Pauli Exclusion Principle
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Electrons are distributed into orbitals of identical energy (same sublevel) in such a way as to give the maximum number of unpaired electrons.
Hund's Rule
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two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins, represented by up and down arrows
General Orbital Rules
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What is called the last filled principal energy level?
valence level/valence shell
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Which level contains electrons that are highest in energy and occupy orbitals that extend further from the nucleus than those in the lower orbitals?
valence level
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Valence electrons occupy orbitals in the valence level, all other electrons are called _____ electrons or inner electrons.
core electrons
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What type of bond are held together by *electrostatic forces*, forces between oppositely charged ions?
Ionic bonds (positive and negative ions come together)
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What type of bond is in molecular compounds, atoms are held together by these bonds, in which electrons are shared?
Covalent bonds
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Which bond is stronger: covalent or ionic? What kind of bond occurs between a metal and a nonmetal?
Ionic
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what is a cation: what is an anion
cation: positively charged ion anion: negatively charged ion
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What kind of bond occurs when electrons are transferred between the cation and the anion? these are *EXTREMELY STRONG BONDS*
Ionic Bond
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When one atom gives up electron to become stable and the other atom accepts the atom to become stable, this is ________ _______. An example is NaCl.
Ionic bond, NaCl.
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Each element following a noble gas is a ______. *______ lose electrons forming a positive charge, to become _______* Each element preceding a noble gas is a ______. _________. *_________ gain electrons, forming a negative charge, to become _______*