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Elements of Language – Grade 7 – Chapter 12: Parts of Speech Overview

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noun
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a person, place, thing, or idea
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pronoun
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takes the place of a noun
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adjective
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modifies a noun or a pronoun.
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verb
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expresses an action or a state of being
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adverb
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modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb. A verb that express either physical or mental activity. Can come before, after, or between the words they modify. never an object
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Adverbs that ask these commonly used questions
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Where? How often? or How long? When? To what extent? How? Or how much?
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Words often used as adverbs
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away, here, inside, there, up, later, now, soon, then, tomorrow, clearly, easily, quietly, slowly,
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More words often uses as adverbs
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always, usually, continuously, never, forever, briefly, almost, so, too, more, least, extremely, quite, very, not
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Adjective + ly = Adverb
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clearly, quiet, convincing
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Adjective ending in -ly
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daily, early, friendly, kindly, lonely, timely
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Not sure if word is an adverb or adjective? Ask yourself what it modifies.
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If is modifies noun or pronoun = and adjective. If it modifies a verb, adjective or an adverb = an adverb.
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preposition
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a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. always has to be an object
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commonly uses prepositions
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aboard, before, for, off, toward, about, behind, from, on, under, above, below, in, out, underneath, across, beneath, in front of, out of, unlike, after, beside, inside, over, until, against, between, instead, past, up, along, beyond, into, since, up to, among, by, like, through, upon, around, down, near, throughout, with, as, during, next to, till, within, at, except, of to without
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prepositional phrase
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includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifies of that object.
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linking verb
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a verb that expresses a state of being. Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.
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Some forms of the verb Be. Be is not always a linking verb.
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am, were, will be, can be, is, has been, shall be, should be, are, have been, may be, would have, was, had been, might be, been
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other linking verbs
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appear, grow , seem, stay, become, look, smell, taste, feel, remain, sound, turn
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Helping verb
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Also known as auxiliary verb. Helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
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Commonly used helping verbs – Forms of be
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am, been, was, are, being, were, be, is
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Commonly used helping verbs – Forms of do and have
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do, does, did, have, has, had
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Commonly used helping verbs – other helping verbs
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can, might, would, could, must, shall. may , will, should
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transitive verb
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A verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
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intransitive verb
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A verb that expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object.
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conjuction
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word that joins words or word groups.
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coordinating conjunctions
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and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet
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correlative conjunction
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pairs that join words or word groups that are used in the same way. Some are: both….and, not only….but also, either….or, whether….or, neither….nor.
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interjection
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expresses strong feeling or emotion
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Commonly used interjections
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aha, my, ouch, wow, hey, oh, rats, yikes, hurray, oops, well, yippee